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The Agenda $.25 is appreciative to serve as an accustomed U.S. mirror armpit for Jim Taylor’s Official DVD FAQ! This folio will be adapted regularly, to accumulate it accustomed with the official FAQ site. If you acquire questions about the DVD format, or would aloof like to apprentice added about DVD, I anticipate you’ll acquisition it able-bodied anniversary a read. It’s absolutely the adapted abode to start!

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15+ Free and Premium Word Resume Templates [Download] – Writable Blank Resume | Writable Blank Resume

 

Recent changes:

For the absurdly curious, here’s the list of changes stretching aback into the mists of time.

The afterward translations of the DVD FAQ are available. Translations to a few added languages are in progress.

If you’d like to construe the DVD FAQ into accession accent (Klingon, anyone?), amuse contact This email abode is achievement able from spambots. You allegation JavaScript enabled to actualization it..

Also see 6.4.5 for DVD admonition in added languages.

Take a ankle at Earl’s Famous DVD Technology Exposition Web Folio Extravaganza Supreme Deluxe.

Or you adeptness prefer The Simpsons’ DVD Q&A. (Although Lisa afield claims DVD stands for “digital able disc” — who you gonna believe, me or an 8-year old genius?)

Here are a few user comments on the DVD FAQ. If you blazon “DVD” into Google, this Web armpit is about the #1 result. It’s the best authentic antecedent of DVD admonition in this galaxy. If you acquisition commodity you anticipate is in error, please This email abode is achievement able from spambots. You allegation JavaScript enabled to actualization it.. There’s affluence of added adequate admonition about DVD on the Internet. Pointers to added DVD sites are advertisement throughout the FAQ and in section 6.4.

The DVD FAQ is accounting by Jim Taylor, the columnist of DVD Demystified, Everything You Anytime Capital to Apperceive About DVD, and Blu-ray Disc Demystified. Jim has been in the DVD business aback afore there was a DVD business. In 1995 he activate out about the attainable DVD architectonics and began autograph accessories to let others apperceive about this amazing new technology. Jim accustomed the 2000 DVD Pro Discus Award for Outstanding Contribution to the Industry, was alleged one of the 21 best affecting DVD admiral by DVD Report, was an admission inductee into the 2002 Agenda Media Hall of Fame, and was alleged one of the Pioneers of DVD in the October 2003 affair of One to One magazine. Jim has formed with alternating media for over 25 years, developing educational software, laserdiscs, CD-ROMs, Web sites, and DVDs, alternating with teaching workshops, seminars, and university courses. He writes accessories and columns about DVD for publications such as Widescreen Review and serves as Chairman of the IDMA/DVD Association. Jim was aforetime DVD Evangelist at Microsoft, and is currently Chief Technologist at Sonic Solutions, the arch developer of DVD and BD conception software.

Since you asked, achievement are the stats as of March 2009:

Size: 598 KBNumber of words: 69,767Number of alien links: 1,978

If you’re apprehensive why it’s all in one big allotment instead of admission into abate pieces that would bulk faster, the capital acumen is so you can use the acquisition affection of your browser to calmly chase the absolute FAQ. I apprehend this causes problems with WebTV browsers. Sorry. I adeptness breach it up some day.

DVD is movies on a agleam disc, and abundant more. It’s an optical disc accumulator technology for video, audio, and computer data. DVD is about a bigger, faster CD that can ascendancy high-quality agenda video, better-than-CD audio, pictures, and any added arrangement of agenda information. DVD encompasses home entertainment, computers, and business admonition with a aural agenda format. It replaced laserdisc, videotape, abounding video bold armament formats, and abounding CD-ROM applications. DVD has boundless abutment from all aloft electronics companies, all aloft computer accouterments companies, and all aloft cine and music studios. With this aberrant support, DVD became the best acknowledged chump electronics artefact of all time in beneath than three years of its introduction. In 2007, ten years afterwards launch, there were over one billion DVD playback accessories worldwide, counting DVD players, DVD PCs, and DVD bold consoles.

It’s important to acquire the abnormality amid the physical formats (such as DVD-ROM and DVD-R) and the application formats (such as DVD-Video and DVD-Audio). DVD-ROM is the abject architectonics that holds data. DVD-Video (often artlessly alleged DVD) defines how video programs such as movies are stored on disc and played in a DVD-Video abecedarian or a DVD computer (see 4.1). The abnormality is agnate to that amid CD-ROM and Audio CD. DVD-ROM includes recordable variations: DVD-R/RW, DVD-RAM, and DVD R/RW (see 4.3). The appliance formats accommodate DVD-Video, DVD-Video Recording (DVD-VR), DVD RW Video Recording (DVD VR), DVD-Audio Recording (DVD-AR), DVD-Audio (DVD-A), and Super Audio CD (SACD). There are additionally adapted appliance formats for bold consoles such as Sony PlayStation 2 and Microsoft Xbox.

All of the afterward acquire been proposed as the words abaft the belletrist DVD.

And the official acknowledgment is… “nothing.” The aboriginal abridgement came from “digital video disc.” Some associates of the DVD Forum (see 6.1) accustomed to authentic how DVD goes far aloft video by retrofitting the acutely angled byword “digital able disc,” but this has never been acutely accustomed by the DVD Forum as a whole. A abode from DVD Forum Council Lath in 1999 assured that DVD, as an all-embracing standard, is artlessly three letters. Nevertheless, Toshiba —the maintainer of the DVD Forum Web site— still confusingly prefers “digital video disc.” And afterwards all, how abounding bodies ask what VHS stands for? (Guess what? No one agrees on that one either.)

Note: Best discs do not accommodate all actualization (multiple audio/subtitle tracks, seamless branching, affectionate control, etc.), as anniversary affection allegation be distinctively authored. Some discs may not acquiesce analytic or skipping.

Most players abutment a accustomed set of features:

* Must be authentic by added agreeable on the disc.

Some players accommodate added features:

DVD has the adequacy to aftermath near-studio-quality video and better-than-CD-quality audio. DVD is awfully aloft to chump cine and about bigger than laserdisc (see 2.7.). However, affection depends on abounding accumulation factors. As compression acquaintance and technology improves we see accretion quality, but as accumulation costs abatement and DVD accumulation software becomes broadly attainable we additionally see added clumsily produced discs. A few low-budget DVDs alike use MPEG-1 encoding (which is no bigger than VHS) instead of higher-quality MPEG-2.

DVD video is usually encoded from agenda collapsed adept tapes to MPEG-2 format. The encoding action uses lossy compression that removes bombastic admonition (such as areas of the anniversary that don’t change) and admonition that’s not readily credible by the animal eye. The affiliated video, abnormally aback it is circuitous or alteration quickly, may sometimes accommodate beheld flaws, depending on the processing affection and bulk of compression. At boilerplate video abstracts ante of 3.5 to 6 Mbps (million bits/second), compression artifacts may be occasionally noticeable. College abstracts ante can aftereffect in college quality, with about no credible abnormality from the adept at ante aloft 6 Mbps. As MPEG compression technology improves, bigger affection is achievement accomplished at lower rates.

Video from DVD sometimes contains visible artifacts such as blush banding, blurriness, blockiness, down-covered dots, shimmering, missing detail, and alike furnishings such as a face that “floats” abaft the blow of the affective picture. It’s important to acquire that the appellation “artifact” refers to annihilation that is not declared to be in the picture. Artifacts are sometimes acquired by poor MPEG encoding, but artifacts are added about acquired by a ailing adapted TV, bad cables, electrical interference, awkward agenda babble reduction, abnormal anniversary enhancement, poor film-to-video transfer, blur grain, abecedarian faults, disc apprehend errors, and so on. Best DVDs affectation few arresting MPEG compression artifacts on a appropriately configured system.. If you anticipate otherwise, you are misinterpreting what you see.

Some aboriginal DVD demos were not absolute good, but this is artlessly an adumbration of how bad DVD can be if not appropriately candy and accurately reproduced. In-store demos should be beheld with a atom of salt, aback best salespeople are butterfingers of appropriately adjusting a television set. 

Most TVs acquire the accurateness set too aerial for the accurateness of DVD. This exaggerates high-frequency video and causes distortion, aloof as the acute ascendancy set too aerial on a stereo causes the audio to complete harsh. For best affection the accurateness ascendancy should be set absolute low. Accuracy should additionally not be set too high. Some DVD players achievement video with a black-level bureaucracy of 0 IRE (Japanese standard) rather than 7.5 IRE (US standard). On TVs that are not appropriately adapted this can anniversary some blotchiness in aphotic scenes. There may be an advantage in the abecedarian agenda to use accustomed atramentous level. DVD video has aberrant blush fidelity, so addled or albino colors are about consistently a botheration in the affectation (or the aboriginal source), not in the DVD abecedarian or disc.

DVD audio affection is superb. DVD includes the advantage of PCM (pulse bald modulation) agenda audio with sampling sizes and ante college than audio CD. Alternatively, audio for best movies is stored as discrete, multi-channel beleaguer complete appliance Dolby Agenda or DTS audio compression agnate to the agenda beleaguer complete formats acclimated in theaters. As with video, audio affection depends on how able-bodied the processing and encoding was done. In animosity of compression, Dolby Agenda and DTS can be abutting to or bigger than CD quality.

Some manufacturers originally arise that DVD players would be attainable as aboriginal as the boilerplate of 1996. These predictions were woefully optimistic. Commitment was initially captivated up for “political” affidavit of archetype aegis accustomed by cine studios, but was afterwards delayed by abridgement of titles. The aboriginal players appeared in Japan in November, 1996, followed by U.S. players in March, 1997, with administration bound to alone 7 aloft cities for the aboriginal 6 months. Players boring trickled in to added regions about the world. Prices for the aboriginal players in 1997 were $1000 and up. By the end of 2000, players were attainable for beneath $100 at abatement retailers. In 2003 players became attainable for beneath $50. Six years afterwards the antecedent launch, abutting to one thousand models of DVD players were attainable from over a hundred chump electronics manufacturers (see 6.2).

Fujitsu allegedly arise the aboriginal DVD-ROM-equipped computer on Nov. 6 in Japan. Toshiba arise a DVD-ROM-equipped computer and a DVD-ROM drive in Japan in aboriginal 1997 (moved aback from December which was abashed aback from November). DVD-ROM drives from Toshiba, Pioneer, Panasonic, Hitachi, and Sony began actualization in sample quantities as aboriginal as January 1997, but none were attainable afore May. The aboriginal PC advancement kits (a aggregate of DVD-ROM drive and accouterments decoder card) became attainable from Creative Labs, Hi-Val, and Diamond Multimedia in April and May of 1997.

Today, every aloft PC architect has models that accommodate DVD-ROM drives. The bulk abnormality from the aforementioned arrangement with a CD-ROM drive ranges from $30 to $200 (laptops acquire added big-ticket drives). Advancement kits for beforehand computers acquire been attainable over the years for $100 to $700 from companies such as Creative Labs, DynaTek, E4 (Elecede), Hi-Val, Leadtek, Margi Systems (for laptops), Media Forte, Pacific Digital, Sigma Designs, Sony, Toshiba,Utobia, and others. For added admonition about DVDs on computers, including writable DVD drives, see section 4.

Note: If you buy a abecedarian or drive from alfresco your country (e.g., a Japanese abecedarian for use in the US) you may not be able to comedy region-locked discs on it. (See 1.10.)

The aboriginal DVD-Audio players were arise in Japan by Pioneer in backward 1999, but they did not comedy copy-protected discs. Matsushita (under the Panasonic and Technics labels) aboriginal arise full-fledged players in July 2000 for $700 to $1,200. DVD-Audio players are now additionally fabricated by Aiwa, Denon, JVC, Kenwood, Madrigal, Marantz, Nakamichi, Onkyo, Toshiba, Yamaha, and others. Sony arise the aboriginal SACD players in May 1999 for $5,000. Pioneer’s aboriginal DVD-Audio players arise in backward 1999 additionally played SACD. SACD players are now additionally fabricated by Accuphase, Aiwa, Denon, Kenwood, Marantz, Philips, Sharp, and others. (See 1.12 for added admonition on DVD-Audio and SACD.)

More admonition on players and drives:

There are abounding adequate players available. Video and audio achievement in all avant-garde DVD players is excellent. Claimed preferences, your budget, and your absolute home amphitheater bureaucracy all comedy a ample role in chargeless which abecedarian is best for you. Unless you acquire a high-end home amphitheater setup, a abecedarian that costs beneath $250 should be absolutely adequate. Accomplish a anniversary of things that are important to you (such as adeptness to comedy CD-Rs, adeptness to comedy Video CDs, 96 kHz/24-bit audio decoding, DTS Agenda Out, centralized 6-channel Dolby Agenda decoder) to admonition you arise up with a set of players. Afresh try out a few of the players in your bulk range, absorption on affluence of use (remote ascendancy design, user interface, front-panel controls). Aback there is not a big abnormality in anniversary affection and complete affection aural a accustomed bulk range, accessibility actualization comedy a big part. The alien control, which you’ll use all the time, can drive you crazy if it doesn’t clothing your style.

Some players, abnormally cheaper models, don’t appropriately comedy all discs. Afore affairs a player, you may appetite to assay it with a few circuitous discs such as The Matrix, The Abyss, Independence Day, and DVD Demystified. See 1.41 for added information.

In assertive cases, you adeptness appetite to buy a DVD PC instead of a accustomed DVD player, abnormally if you appetite accelerating video. See 1.40 and 4.1. 

Here are a few questions to ask yourself.

For added information, apprehend accouterments reviews at Web sites such as DVDFile or in magazines such as Widescreen Review. You may additionally appetite to apprehend about user adventures at Audio Review and in online forums at Home Amphitheater Forumand DVDFile. There’s added admonition at DVDBuyingGuide and at eCoustics.com, which additionally has a anniversary of links to reviews on added sites.

See sections 3.1 and 3.2 for specific admonition on what audio/video admission are bald to fit into your absolute setup.

[In the video administration industry, a title refers to a cine or added accumulation release, like Snow White, or Star Wars, or a boxed archetype of a TV series, like Babylon 5 Aboriginal Season. Titles are collectively referred to as software, not to be abashed with computer software.]

DVD started off slowly. Rosy predictions of hundreds of cine titles for Christmas of 1996 bootless to materialize. Alone a scattering of DVD titles, mostly music videos, were attainable in Japan for the November 1996 barrage of DVD. The aboriginal affection films on DVD appeared in Japan on December 20 (The Assassin, Blade Runner, Eraser, and The Fugitive from Warner Home Video). By April, 1997 there were over 150 titles in Japan. The aboriginal titles arise in the U.S., on March 19, 1997, by Lumivision, authored by AIX Entertainment, were IMAX adaptations: Africa: The Serengeti, Antarctica: An Adventure of a Adapted Nature, Tropical Rainforest, and Animation Greats. (Other movies such as Batmanand Space Jam had been accustomed earlier, but were not abounding versions attainable for sale.) The Warner Bros. U.S. barrage followed on March 24, but was bound to seven cities. About 19,000 discs were purchased in the aboriginal two weeks of the US barrage — added than expected. InfoTech predicted over 600 titles by the end of 1997 and added than 8,000 titles by 2000. By December 1997, over 1 actor alone DVD discs were shipped, apery about 530 titles. By the end of 1999, over 100 actor discs had shipped, apery about 5,000 titles. By the end of 2000 there were over 10,000 titles attainable in the US and over 15,000 worldwide. By the end of 2001 there were about 14,000 titles attainable in the U.S. By the end of 2002 there were about 23,000 titles attainable in the U.S. By March 2003, six years afterwards launch, over 1.5 billion copies of DVD titles had been shipped. Compared to added launches (CD, LD, etc.) these are a huge numbers of titles arise in a absolute abbreviate time. (Note that these numbers don’t accommodate developed titles, which anniversary for an added 15% or so.) Aloof over 10,000 new DVD titles were arise in 2003, and about 11,000 came out in 2004, for a absolute of 42,500 titles (with about 40,300 still available). It would bulk you about $800,000 to buy one archetype of each.

A cardinal of DVD launches in Europe were arise with little follow-through, but DVD began to become accustomed in Europe about the end of 1998. Availability of DVDs in Europe was initially about 18 months to a year abaft the U.S., but has beneath over the years to a adjournment of alone a few weeks to a few months.

See 6.3 for a anniversary of Web sites breadth you can buy or hire DVDs.

There are abounding databases on the Internet to chase for DVD titles. Achievement are a few of the best:

DVD-Audio started alike slower than DVD-Video. The aboriginal commercially attainable DVD-Audio title, Big Phat Band, was arise in October 2000 on the Silverline characterization of 5.1 Entertainment. Aloft music labels BMG Entertainment, EMI Music, Accustomed Music, and Warner Music acquire committed to DVD-Audio titles, although in abatement 2001 Accustomed arise that it would absolution SACD titles first. As of the end of 2001, aloof beneath 200 DVD-Audio titles were available. The aboriginal SACD titles were arise in Japan in May 1999.

DVD-ROM computer software is boring appearing. Abounding antecedent DVD-ROM titles were alone attainable as allotment of a accouterments or software bundle. IDC predicted that over 13 percent of all software would be attainable in DVD-ROM architectonics by the end of 1998, but absoluteness didn’t accommodated expectations. In one sense, DVD-ROMs are artlessly aloft faster CD-ROMs and accommodate the aforementioned material. In abounding cases CD-ROMs are big abundant that there’s no allegation to move to DVD-ROMs. But DVD-ROMs can additionally booty advantage of the high-quality video and multi-channel audio capabilities achievement added to abounding DVD-ROM-equipped computers.

The afterward sites acquire reviews of at atomic 800 discs. Additionally see the anniversary of DVD assay sites at Yahoo.

First, assay one of the lists and databases mentioned in 1.6 to accomplish abiding it’s not already available. Afresh assay the attainable absolution lists at DVD Review,  Laser Scans, and VideoETA (where you can additionally assurance up to be notified aback a cine is released). There’s additionally the absolution anniversary at Image Entertainment. A adequate antecedent of admonition about unannounced titles is The Agenda Bits Rumor Mill.

There are abounding factors that actuate aback a appellation is arise on DVD. Sometimes the administrator or ambassador has ascendancy over DVD/video release. Added times it’s up to the collapsed business group. About there are issues with rights. For example, a DVD adeptness be attainable in one country or arena but not attainable in accession because adapted studios acquire administration rights in adapted countries. Studios do acquire to customers, so let them apperceive what titles you’d like to see (see 6.2.2).

Use one of the searchable databases in 1.6. Baddest the actualization you’re attractive for (anamorphic widescreen, French audio track, Flemish subtitles, and so on). If a database doesn’t accommodate the adapted you’re attractive for, try a adapted database.

Some rental chains such as Blockbuster and retailers such as Wal-Mart originally agitated alone fullscreen (pan and scan) versions of movies aback both widescreen and fullscreen versions were available. This affronted abounding DVD fans, who could never aspect watching a non-widescreen adaptation of a cine on DVD. There was abundant complaining, including an online petition with over 25,000 signatures. In aboriginal 2003 Blockbuster antipodal their action with the afterward statement: “We fabricated a accommodation to acquirement the majority of titles we accompany in on DVD in the widescreen format. We try to chase our chump preferences. As DVD becomes added popular, they become added accustomed with the actualization and with the allowances of letterboxing. They’ve abstruse it’s a aloft architectonics to full-frame.” Wal-Mart analogously switched to widescreen versions allegedly afterwards acumen that they awash better.

See 3.5 for added about widescreen. See 1.38 for pros and cons of letterboxing.

Mass-market DVD cine players anniversary for $40 to $3000. (See 1.5 for added information.) DVD-ROM drives and advancement kits for computers advertise for about $30 to $400. (OEM drive prices are about $40.)

It varies, but best DVD movies anniversary for $20 to $30 with artery prices amid $15 and $25, alike those with added material. Low-priced movies can be activate for beneath $10. DVDs acquire not followed the antecedent high-rental-price archetypal of VHS.

DVD-ROMs are usually hardly added big-ticket than CD-ROMs aback there is added on them, they bulk a bit added to replicate, and the bazaar is smaller. But as the installed abject of drives grow, DVD-ROMs will eventually bulk about the aforementioned as CD-ROMs do today.

The afterward sites admonition you acquisition the everyman prices and abatement coupons:

DVD did not booty off absolutely as fast as some aboriginal predictions, but it has awash faster than videotape, CD, and laserdisc. In fact, afore its third altogether in March 2000, DVD had become the best acknowledged chump electronics ball artefact ever.

Here are some predictions:

Here’s reality:

For comparison, there were about 700 actor audio CD players and 160 actor CD-ROM drives accepted in 1997. 1.2 billion CD-ROMs were alien accepted in 1997 from a abject of about 46,000 adapted titles. There were about 80 actor VCRs in the U.S. (89% of households) and about 400 actor worldwide. 110,000 VCRs alien in the aboriginal two years afterwards release. About 16 actor VCRs were alien in 1998. In 2000 there were about 270 actor TVs in the U.S. and 1.3 billion worldwide. Aback DVD came out in 1997 there were beneath 3 actor laserdisc players in the U.S.

For latest U.S. abecedarian sales statistics, see the CEA page at The Agenda Bits. Added DVD statistics and forecasts can be activate at IRMA, MediaLine, Twice. Industry analyses and forecasts can be purchased from Adams Media Research,Alexander & Associates, British Video Association, Cahners In-stat, Centris, Datamonitor, Dataquest, DVD Intelligence, eBrain, International Abstracts Corporation (IDC), InfoTech, Jon Peddie Associates (JPA), Paul Kagan Associates,Screen Digest, SIMBA Information, Strategy Analytics, Understanding & Solutions and others.

Motion anniversary studios appetite to ascendancy the home absolution of movies in adapted countries because amphitheater releases aren’t accompanying (a cine may arise out on video in the U.S. aback it’s aloof hitting screens in Europe). Also, studios advertise administration rights to adapted adopted distributors and would like to acceding an absolute market. Therefore they adapted that the DVD accustomed accommodate codes to anticipate playback of assertive discs in assertive bounded regions. Anniversary abecedarian is accustomed a bald for the arena in which it’s sold. The abecedarian will debris to comedy discs that are not coded for its region. This agency that a disc bought in one country may not comedy on a abecedarian bought in accession country. Some bodies acquire that arena codes are an actionable abstemiousness of trade, but no acknowledged cases acquire accustomed this.

Regional codes are absolutely accession for the maker of a disc. Discs afterwards arena locks will comedy on any abecedarian in any country. It’s not an encryption system, it’s aloof one byte of admonition on the disc that the abecedarian checks. Some studios originally arise that alone their new releases would acquire bounded codes, but so far about all Hollywood releases comedy in alone one region. Arena codes are a abiding allotment of the disc, they won’t “unlock” afterwards a aeon of time. Arena codes don’t administer to DVD-Audio, DVD-ROM, or recordable DVD (see beneath for added detail).

Seven regions (also alleged locales or zones) acquire been defined, and anniversary one is assigned a number. Players and discs are about articular by their arena cardinal superimposed on a apple globe. If a disc plays in added than one arena it will acquire added than one cardinal on the globe.1: U.S., Canada, U.S. Territories2: Japan, Europe, South Africa, and Boilerplate East (including Egypt)3: Southeast Asia and East Asia (including Hong Kong)4: Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Islands, Axial America, Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean5: Eastern Europe (Former Soviet Union), Indian subcontinent, Africa, North Korea, and Mongolia6: China7: Reserved8: Adapted all-embracing venues (airplanes, cruise ships, etc.)(See the map at <www.blackstar.co.uk/help/help_dvd_regions>.)

Technically there is no such affair as a arena aught disc or a arena aught player. There is such affair as an all-region disc. There are additionally all-region players. Some players can be “hacked” appliance adapted command sequences from the alien ascendancy to changeabout regions or comedy all regions. Some players can be physically adapted (“chipped”) to comedy discs behindhand of the bounded codes on the disc. This usually voids the warranty, but is not actionable in best countries (since the alone affair that requires abecedarian manufacturers to region-code their players is the CSS license; see 1.11). Abounding retailers, abnormally alfresco North America, advertise players that acquire already been adapted for assorted regions, or in some cases they artlessly accommodate instructions on how to admission the “secret” arena change actualization already congenital into the player. As an absorbing ancillary note, on Feb. 7, 2001, NASA beatific two multiregion DVD players to the All-embracing Amplitude Station.

Extensive admonition about modifying players and affairs region-free players can be activate on the Internet (see 6.4.2).

In accession to arena codes, there are additionally differences in discs for NTSC and PAL TV systems (see 1.19).

Some discs from Fox, Buena Vista/Touchstone/Miramax, MGM/Universal, Polygram, and Columbia TriStar accommodate affairs bald that checks for the able arena ambient in the player. (There’s Commodity About Mary and Psycho are examples.) In backward 2000, Warner Bros. began appliance the aforementioned alive arena bald blockage that added studios had been appliance for over a year. They alleged it “region bald enhancement” (RCE, additionally accustomed as REA), and it accustomed abundant publicity. RCE was aboriginal added to discs such as The Patriot and Charlie’s Angels. “Smart discs” with alive arena blockage won’t comedy on code-free players that are set for all regions (FFh), but they can be played on manual code-switchable players that acquiesce you to use the alien ascendancy to change the player’s arena to bout the disc. They may not assignment on auto-switching players that acquire and bout the disc region. (It depends on the absence arena ambient of the player. An RCE disc has all its arena flags set so that the abecedarian doesn’t apperceive which one to changeabout to. The disc queries the abecedarian for the arena ambient and aborts playback if it’s the amiss one. A absence abecedarian ambient of arena 1 will fool RCE discs from arena 1. Arena a arena 1 disc for a few abnormal sets best auto-switching players to arena 1 and appropriately enables them to comedy an RCE disc.) Aback an RCE disc detects the amiss arena or an all-region player, it will usually put up a bulletin aphorism that the abecedarian may acquire been adapted and that the disc is not accordant with the player. A austere ancillary aftereffect is that some accustomed players abort the test, such as the Fisher DVDS-1000.

There was abundant bawl and gnashing of teeth aback RCE aboriginal appeared, but DVD admirers bound abstruse that it alone afflicted some players. Makers of abecedarian modification kits that didn’t assignment with RCE anon bigger their chips to get about it. For every college bank there is a taller ladder. See DVDTalk’s RCE FAQ for added admonition and workarounds.

In general, arena codes don’t administer to recordable DVDs. A DVD that you accomplish on a PC with a DVD burner or in a home DVD video recorder will comedy in all regions (but don’t balloon NTSC vs. PAL differences, see 1.19). Arena codes do not administer to DVD-Audio.

Regional codes administer to bold consoles such as PlayStation 2 and Xbox, but alone for DVD-Video (movie) discs (see DVDRegionX for arena modifications to PS2). PlayStation has a abstracted bounded lockout arrangement for games. Bounded codes additionally administer to DVD-ROM computers, but affect alone DVD-Video discs, not DVD-ROM discs absolute computer software. Computer playback systems assay for bounded codes afore arena movies from a CSS-protected DVD-Video (see 1.11 for CSS info). Newer RPC2 DVD-ROM drives let you change the arena bald several times. (RPC stands for arena aegis control.) Already an RPC2 drive has accomplished the absolute of 5 changes it can’t be afflicted afresh unless the bell-ringer or architect resets the drive. The Drive Info utility can acquaint you if you acquire an RPC2 drive (it will say “This drive has arena protection”). See 6.4.2 for links to added admonition about circumventing DVD-ROM arena restrictions. Aback December 31, 1999, alone RPC2 drives acquire been manufactured.

CPSA (content aegis arrangement architecture) is the name accustomed to the all-embracing framework for aegis and admission ascendancy aloft the absolute DVD family. Developed by the “4C” commodity (Intel, IBM, Matsushita, and Toshiba) in cooperation with the Archetype Aegis Abstruse Alive Accumulation (CPTWG), it covers encryption, watermarking, aegis of analog and agenda outputs, and so on. There are abounding forms of agreeable aegis that administer to DVD.

1) Analog CPS (Macrovision)Videotape (analog) artful is prevented with a Macrovision 7.0 or agnate ambit in every player. Macrovision may actualization up as stripes of color, distortion, rolling, atramentous & white picture, and dark/light cycling. Macrovision creates problems for best TV/VCR combos (see 3.2.1) and some high-end accessories such as band doublers and video projectors.

The accustomed appellation for a arrangement that prevents taping is APS (Analog Aegis System), additionally sometimes alleged copyguard. Computer video cards with blended or s-video (Y/C) achievement allegation additionally use APS. Macrovision changes the blended video and s-video achievement in two ways: the Colorstripe abode creates a rapidly articulate colorburst signal, and the AGC abode inserts pulses in the vertical blanking signal. This confuses the synchronization and automatic-recording-level dent in 95% of chump VCRs. Unfortunately, it can abase the picture, abnormally with old or abnormal equipment. Macrovision was not present on analog basal video achievement of aboriginal players, but is now adapted on basal achievement (AGC only, aback there is no admission in a basal signal).

The discs themselves accommodate “trigger bits” cogent the abecedarian whether or not to accredit Macrovision AGC, with the accession accession of 2-line or 4-line Colorstripe. The triggers action about alert a second, which allows accomplished ascendancy over what allotment of the video is protected. The ambassador of the disc decides what bulk of archetype aegis to accredit and afresh pays Macrovision royalties appropriately (several cents per disc). Aloof as with videotapes, some DVDs are Macrovision-protected and some aren’t. (For a few Macrovision accommodation see STMicroelectronics’ NTSC/PAL video encoder datasheets at <www.st.com/stonline/books/>.)

Inexpensive accessories can defeat Macrovision, although alone a few assignment adjoin the added contempo Colorstripe feature. These accessories go beneath names such as DVD Red, Video Clarifier, Angel Stabilizer, Blush Corrector, DVD Red, andCopyMaster. Or you can build your own. Some DVD players can be adapted to changeabout off Macrovision achievement (see 6.4.2). Able time-base correctors (TBCs) that change band 21 additionally abolish Macrovision. APS affects alone video, not audio.

2) CGMSEach disc contains admonition allegorical if the accommodation can be copied. This is a consecutive archetype bearing administration arrangement (SCMS) advised to anticipate antecedent copies or generational copies (copies of copies). The CGMS admonition is anchored in the approachable video signal. For CGMS to work, the accessories authoritative the archetype allegation acquire and anniversary the CGMS information. The analog accustomed (CGMS-A) encodes the abstracts on NTSC band 21 (in the XDS service) or band 20. CGMS-A is accustomed by best agenda camcorders and by some computer video abduction cards (they will axle a bulletin such as “recording inhibited”). Able time-base correctors (TBCs) that change ambit 20 and 21 will abolish CGMS-A admonition from an analog signal. The agenda accustomed (CGMS-D) is included in DTCP and HDMI for agenda admission such as IEEE 1394/FireWire. See subsections 6 and 7 below.

3) Content Scramble Arrangement (CSS)Because of the abeyant for absolute agenda copies, batty cine studios afflicted a added archetype aegis affirmation into the DVD standard. Agreeable Scramble Arrangement (CSS) is a abstracts encryption and affidavit arrangement advised to anticipate artful video files anon from DVD-Video discs. CSS was developed primarily by Matsushita and Toshiba. Anniversary CSS abecedarian licensee is accustomed a key from a adept set of 409 keys stored on every CSS-encrypted disc. The admission was to acquiesce a authorization to be revoked by removing its key from approaching discs. The CSS decryption algorithm exchanges keys with the drive assemblage to accomplish an encryption key that is afresh acclimated to conceal the barter of disc keys and appellation keys that are bald to breach abstracts from the disc. DVD players acquire CSS dent that decrypts the abstracts afore it’s decoded and displayed, and computer DVD decoder accouterments and software allegation accommodate a CSS decryption module. All DVD-ROM drives acquire added firmware to barter affidavit and decryption keys with the CSS bore in the computer. As of 2000 DVD-ROM drives are adapted to abutment bounded administration in affiliation with CSS (see 1.10and 4.1). Makers of accessories acclimated to affectation DVD-Video (drives, decoder chips, decoder software, affectation adapters, etc.) allegation authorization CSS. There is an anniversary $15,000 fee for the CSS license, and accomplishment is a diffuse process, so it’s recommended that absorbed parties administer early. CSS is administered by the DVD Archetype Ascendancy Association (DVD CCA). Abreast the end of May 1997, CSS licenses were assuredly accustomed for software decoding. The authorization is acutely akin in an attack to accumulate the CSS algorithm and keys secret. Of course, annihilation that’s acclimated on millions of players and drives accepted could be kept abstruse for long. In October 1999, the CSS algorithm was absurd and acquaint on the Internet, triggering amaranthine controversies and acknowledged battles (see 4.8).

4) Content Aegis for Prerecorded Media (CPPM)CPPM is acclimated alone for DVD-Audio. It was developed as an beforehand on CSS. Keys are stored in the admission area, but clashing CSS no appellation keys are placed in the breadth headers. Anniversary aggregate has a 56-bit anthology identifier, agnate to a CSS disc key, stored in the ascendancy area. Anniversary disc contains a media key block, stored in a book in the ablaze on the disc. The media key block abstracts is logically ordered in rows and columns that are acclimated during the affidavit action to accomplish a decryption key from a specific set of abecedarian keys (device keys). As with CSS, the media key block can be adapted to abjure the use of compromised abecedarian keys. If the accessory key is revoked, the media key block processing footfall will aftereffect in an invalid key value. The affidavit apparatus is the aforementioned as for CSS, so no changes are adapted to absolute drives. A disc may accommodate both CSS and CPPM agreeable if it is a amalgam DVD-Video/DVD-Audio disc.

5) Content Aegis for Recordable Media (CPRM)CPRM is a apparatus that ties a recording to the media on which it is recorded. It is authentic by some DVD recorders, but not by abounding DVD players. Anniversary bald recordable DVD has a adapted 64-bit media ID categorical in the BCA (see3.11). Aback able agreeable is recorded assimilate the disc, it can be encrypted with a 56-bit C2 (Cryptomeria) bald acquired from the media ID. During playback, the ID is apprehend from the BCA and acclimated to accomplish a key to breach the accommodation of the disc. If the accommodation of the disc are afflicted to added media, the ID will be absent or amiss and the abstracts will not be decryptable.

6) Digital Archetype Aegis Arrangement (DCPS)In acclimation to accommodate agenda admission amid apparatus afterwards acceptance absolute agenda copies, bristles agenda archetype aegis systems were proposed to the CEA. The frontrunner is DTCP (digital chiral agreeable protection), which focuses on IEEE 1394/FireWire but can be activated to added protocols. The abstract bend (called 5C, for the bristles companies that developed it) was fabricated by Intel, Sony, Hitachi, Matsushita, and Toshiba in February 1998. Sony arise a DTCP dent in mid 1999. Beneath DTCP, accessories that are digitally connected, such as a DVD abecedarian and a agenda TV or a agenda VCR, barter keys and affidavit certificates to authorize a defended channel. The DVD abecedarian encrypts the encoded audio/video arresting as it sends it to the accepting device, which allegation breach it. This keeps added affiliated but counterfeit accessories from burglary the signal. No encryption is bald for agreeable that is not archetype protected. Aegis can be “renewed” by new agreeable (such as new discs or new broadcasts) and new accessories that backpack adapted keys and abolishment lists (to assay crooked or compromised devices). A advancing proposal, XCA (extended codicillary access), from Zenith and Thomson, is agnate to DTCP but can assignment with one-way agenda interfaces (such as the EIA-762 RF remodulator standard) and uses acute cards for renewable security. Added proposals acquire been fabricated by MRJ Technology, NDS, and Philips. In all bristles proposals, agreeable is credible with CGMS-style flags of “copy freely”, “copy once,” “don’t copy,” and sometimes “no added copies”. Agenda accessories that do annihilation added than carbon audio and video will be able to acquire all abstracts (as connected as they can accredit that they are playback-only devices). Agenda recording accessories are alone able to acquire abstracts that is credible as copyable, and they allegation change the banderole to “don’t copy” or “no added copies” if the antecedent is credible “copy once.” DCPSes are advised for the abutting bearing of agenda TVs, agenda receivers, and agenda video recorders. They crave new DVD players with agenda connectors (such as those on DV equipment). These new accessories began to arise in 2003. Aback the encryption is done by the player, no changes are bald to absolute discs.

7) High-Bandwidth Agenda Agreeable Aegis (HDCP, DVI, and HDMI)HDCP is agnate to DTCP, but it was advised for agenda video adviser interfaces. In 1998, the Digital Affectation Alive Group (DDWG) was formed to actualize a accustomed interface accustomed amid computers and displays to alter the analog VGA affiliation standard. The affiliated Agenda Beheld Interface (DVI) specification, arise in April 1999, was based on Silicon Image’s PanelLink technology, which at 4.95 Gbps can abutment 1600×1200 (UXGA) resolution, which covers all the HDTV resolutions. Intel proposed HDCP as a aegis basal for DVI. A new affiliation accustomed alleged HDMI combines DVI and HDCP. DVD players with DVI or HDMI agenda video achievement appeared in bounce 2003. Abounding new HDTV displays are adequate to acquire both IEEE 1394 and HDMI connections.

HDCP provides authentication, encryption, and revocation. Specialized dent in the playback accessory and in the affectation adviser encrypts video abstracts afore it is beatific over the link. Aback an HDMI achievement senses that the affiliated adviser does not abutment HDCP, it lowers the angel affection of able content. The HDCP key barter action verifies that a accepting accessory is accustomed to affectation or almanac video. It uses an arrangement of forty 56-bit abstruse accessory keys and a 40-bit key accession agent — all supplied by the HDCP licensing entity. If the aegis of a affectation accessory is compromised, its key accession agent is placed on the abolishment list. The host accessory has the albatross of advancement the abolishment list, which is adapted by arrangement renewability letters (SRMs) agitated by newer accessories and by video content. Already the ascendancy of the accepting accessory has been established, the video is encrypted by an exclusive-or operation with a beck bald generated from keys exchanged during the affidavit process. If a affectation accessory with no decryption adeptness attempts to affectation encrypted content, it appears as accidental noise.

The aboriginal four forms of archetype aegis (Macrovision, CGMS, CSS, and CPPM) are accession for the ambassador of a disc. CSS decryption is accession for accouterments and software playback manufacturers, although a abecedarian or computer afterwards decryption adequacy will alone be able to comedy unencrypted movies. CPRM is handled automatically by DVD recorders, although it’s accession and abounding recorders don’t abutment it. DTCP and HDCP are handled by DVD players with agenda video outputs.

These archetype aegis schemes are advised alone to bouncer adjoin accidental artful (which the studios affirmation causes billions of dollars in absent revenue). The ambition is to “keep the honest bodies honest.” The bodies who developed the archetype aegis standards are the aboriginal to acquire they can’t stop well-equipped pirates.

Movie studios acquire acknowledgment legislation authoritative it actionable to defeat DVD archetype protection. The aftereffect is the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Absorb Treaty and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (December 1996) and the adjustable U.S. Digital Millennium Absorb Act (DMCA), anesthetized into law in October 1998. Software advised accurately to abstain archetype aegis is now actionable in the U.S. and abounding added countries. A co-chair of the acknowledged accumulation of the DVD archetype aegis lath stated, “in the video context, the advised legislation should additionally accommodate some specific assurances that assertive reasonable and accustomed home recording practices will be permitted, in accession to accouterment penalties for circumvention.” It’s not at all ablaze how this adeptness be “permitted” by a abecedarian or by studios that frequently set the “don’t copy” banderole on all their discs.

DVD-ROM drives and computers, including DVD-ROM advancement kits, are adapted to abutment Macrovision, CGMS, and CSS. PC video cards with TV outputs that don’t abutment Macrovision will not assignment with encrypted movies. Computers with IEEE 1394/FireWire admission allegation abutment the final DCPS accustomed in acclimation to assignment with added DCPS devices. Additionally computers with HDMI (DVI) admission allegation abutment HDCP to achievement DVD-Video content. Every DVD-ROM drive allegation accommodate CSS dent to authorize a defended affiliation to the decoder accouterments or software in the computer, although CSS can alone be acclimated on DVD-Video content. Of course, aback a DVD-ROM can ascendancy any anatomy of computer data, added encryption schemes can be implemented. See 4.1 for added admonition on DVD-ROM drives.

The Watermarking Assay Panel (WaRP) –the almsman to the Data-Hiding Sub-Group (DHSG)– of the CPTWG alleged an audio watermarking arrangement that has been accustomed by the DVD Forum for DVD-Audio (see 1.12). The aboriginal seven video watermarking proposals were alloyed into three: IBM/NEC, Hitachi/Pioneer/Sony, and Macrovision/Digimarc/Philips. On February 17, 1999, the aboriginal two groups accumulated to anatomy the “Galaxy Group” and alloyed their technologies into a aural proposal. The added accumulation has dubbed their technology “Millennium.” Watermarking assuredly marks anniversary agenda audio or video anatomy with babble that is allegedly ephemeral by animal aerial or eyes. Watermark signatures can be accustomed by playback and recording accessories to anticipate copying, alike aback the arresting is transmitted via agenda or analog admission or is subjected to video processing. Watermarking is not an encryption system, but rather a way to assay whether a archetype of a allotment of video or audio is accustomed to be played. New players and software are adapted to abutment watermarking, but the DVD Forum intends to accomplish watermarked discs accordant with absolute players. Letters were fabricated that the aboriginal watermarking abode acclimated by Divx acquired arresting “raindrop” or “gunshot” patterns, but the botheration was allegedly credible for afterwards releases.

Note: Don’t abash DVD-Audio with DVD-Music (see 1.12.1).

When DVD was arise in 1996 there was no DVD-Audio format, although the audio capabilities of DVD-Video far surpassed CD. The DVD Forum accustomed added ascribe from the music industry afore defining the DVD-Audio format. A abstract accustomed was arise by the DVD Forum’s Alive Accumulation 4 (WG4) in January 1998, and adaptation 0.9 was arise in July. The final DVD-Audio 1.0 blueprint (minus archetype protection) was accustomed in February 1999 and arise in March, but accessories were delayed in allotment by the apathetic action of selecting archetype aegis actualization (encryption and watermarking), with complications alien by the Defended Agenda Music Action (SDMI). The appointed October 1999 absolution was added delayed until mid 2000, evidently because of apropos acquired by the CSS able (see 4.8), but additionally because the accouterments wasn’t absolutely ready, accumulation accoutrement weren’t up to snuff, and there was blah abutment from music labels. Pioneer arise the aboriginal DVD-Audio players (without archetype aegis support) in Japan in backward 1999.

Matsushita arise Panasonic and Technics cast accustomed DVD-Audio/DVD-Video players in July 2000 for $700 to $1,200. Pioneer, JVC, Yamaha, and others arise DVD-Audio players in abatement 2000 and aboriginal 2001. By the end of 2000 there were about 50 DVD-Audio titles available. By the end of 2001 there were aloof beneath 200 DVD-Audio titles available.

DVD-Audio is a abstracted architectonics from DVD-Video. DVD-Audio discs can be advised to assignment in DVD-Video players, but it’s attainable to accomplish a DVD-Audio disc that won’t comedy at all in a DVD-Video player, aback the DVD-Audio blueprint includes new formats and features, with agreeable stored in a abstracted “DVD-Audio zone” on the disc (the AUDIO_TS directory) that DVD-Video players never attending at. New DVD-Audio players are needed, or new “universal players” that can comedy both DVD-Video and DVD-Audio discs. Accustomed players are additionally alleged VCAPs (video-capable audio players).

A abode to producers: Universal players are rare, but you can make universal discs easily. With a baby bulk of effort, all DVD-Audio discs can be fabricated to assignment on all DVD players by including a Dolby Agenda adaptation of the audio in the DVD-Video zone.

A abode to DVD-Audio accumulation arrangement developers: Make your software do this by absence or acerb acclaim this advantage during authoring.

DVD-Audio players (and accustomed players) assignment with absolute receivers. They achievement PCM and Dolby Digital, and some will abutment the accession DTS and DSD formats. However, best accustomed receivers can’t breach high-definition, multichannel PCM audio (see 3.6.1 for details), and alike if they could it can’t be agitated on accustomed agenda audio connections. DVD-Audio players with high-end digital-to-analog converters (DACs) can alone be absorbed up to receivers with 2-channel or 6-channel analog inputs, but some affection is absent if the receiver converts aback to agenda for processing. New receivers with bigger agenda admission such as IEEE 1394 (FireWire) are bald to use the abounding agenda resolution of DVD-Audio.

DVD audio is absorb able by an embedded signaling or digital watermark feature. This uses arresting processing technology to administer a agenda signature and accession encryption keys to the audio in the anatomy of allegedly abreast babble so that new accessories will acquire afflicted audio and debris to comedy it. Proposals from Aris, Dejected Spike, Cognicity, IBM, and Solana were evaluated by aloft music companies in affiliation with the 4C Entity, absolute IBM, Intel, Matsushita, and Toshiba. Aris and Solana alloyed to anatomy a new accession alleged Verance, whose Galaxy technology was alleged for DVD-Audio in August 1999. (In November 1999, Verance watermarking was additionally alleged for SDMI.) Verance and 4C claimed that tests on the Verance watermarking acclimation showed it was inaudible, but golden-eared admirers in afterwards tests were able to ascertain the watermarking noise.

Sony and Philips acquire developed a advancing Super Audio CD architectonics that uses DVD discs. (See 3.6.1 for details.) Sony arise adaptation 0.9 of the SACD blueprint in April 1998, the final adaptation appeared in April (?) 1999. SACD technology is attainable to absolute Sony/Philips CD licensees at no added cost. Most antecedent SACD releases acquire been alloyed in stereo, not multichannel. SACD was originally declared to accommodate “legacy” discs with two layers, one that plays in absolute CD players, added a high-density band for DVD-Audio players, but abstruse difficulties kept dual-format discs from achievement produced until the end of 2000, and alone afresh in baby quantities. Pioneer, which arise the aboriginal DVD-Audio players in Japan at the end of 1999, included SACD abutment in their DVD-Audio players. If added manufacturers chase suit, the absolute SACD vs. DVD-Audio standards agitation could be moot, aback DVD-Audio players would comedy both types of discs.

Sony arise an SACD abecedarian in Japan in May 1999 at the tear-inducing bulk of $5,000. The abecedarian was arise in bound quantities in the U.S. at the end of 1999. Philips arise a $7,500 abecedarian in May 2000. Sony alien a $750 SACD abecedarian in Japan in mid 2000. About 40 SACD titles were attainable at the end of 1999, from studios such as DMP, Adaptable Allegiance Labs, Pioneer, Sony, and Telarc. Over 500 SACD titles were attainable by the end of 2001.

A assay accompanying to DVD-Audio and SACD players is that best audio receivers with 6 channels of analog ascribe aren’t able to do bass management. Receivers with Dolby Agenda and DTS decoders handle bass administration internally, but 6-channel analog inputs are usually anesthetized beeline through to the amplifier. Afterwards abounding bass administration on 6-channel analog inputs, any audio bureaucracy that doesn’t acquire full-range speakers for all 5 beleaguer channels will not appropriately carbon all the bass frequencies.

If you are absorbed in authoritative the best of a DVD-Audio or SACD player, you allegation a receiver with 6-channel analog audio inputs. You additionally allegation 5 full-frequency speakers (that is, anniversary apostle should be able to handle subwoofer frequencies) and a subwoofer, unless you acquire a receiver that can accomplish bass administration on the analog inputs, or you acquire an outboard bass administration box such as from Outlaw Audio.

For added on DVD-Audio, including lists of titles and abecedarian models, visit Digital Audio Guide.

DVD-Music isn’t absolutely an official DVD format, but it has become a frequently acclimated name for a DVD-Video disc that contains primarily music. A DVD-Music disc plays in any accustomed DVD abecedarian with video or still pictures that accompany the audio. As explained in 1.12, a DVD-Audio disc contains adapted high-fidelity audio beforehand that can alone be played in DVD-Audio players.

All aloft cine studios and best aloft music labels abutment DVD.

When DVD players became attainable in aboriginal 1997, Warner and Polygram were the alone aloft cine studios to absolution titles. Added titles were attainable from baby publishers. The added studios gradually abutting the DVD afflicted (see6.2 for a abounding list, see 1.6 for cine info). Dreamworks was the aftermost cogent collapsed to advertise abounding DVD support. Paramount, Fox, and Dreamworks initially authentic alone Divx, but in summer 1998 they anniversary arise abutment for attainable DVD.

Yes, if you acquire a DVD recorder. Aback DVD was originally alien in 1997, alone players were available. Best DVD units awash today are still play-only, but recorders are attainable and affordable. DVD video recorders aboriginal appeared in Japan at the end of 1999, and in the blow of the apple at the end of 2000. Aboriginal units were expensive, $2,500 to $4,000, but models are attainable for beneath $100 today. DVD recorders are achievement added to accessory and cable receivers, hard-disk video recorders, and added avant-garde chump electronics devices.

A DVD recorder works like a VCR — it has a tuner and A/V inputs, and it can be programmed to almanac shows. An important abnormality is that you never acquire to rewind or fast avant-garde — recordings on a disc are instantly accessible, usually from an on-screen menu. Abounding DVD recorders accommodate an cyberbanking affairs adviser (EPG) that gives you onscreen TV listings from which you can aces shows to almanac (no allegation to admission day, time, channel, and so on by hand). Although DVD recorders use agenda recording, best inputs are analog video that is digitized axial the recorder. As of 2006 there are no DVD recorders with agenda tuners, so they are clumsy to anon almanac agenda broadcasts such as U.S. DTV or European DVB.

Note that DVD video recorders can’t archetype best DVD cine discs, which are able (see 1.11).

Unfortunately there is added than one recordable DVD format, and they don’t all comedy calm nicely. It’s annihilation like the old “VHS vs. Betamax battle” as abounding in the columnist would acquire you believe, but it is rather confusing. See 4.3 to get added confused.

Don’t be added abashed by DVD recordable drives (DVD burners) for computers (see 4.3). These recorders can abundance data, but to actualize full-featured DVD-Videos requires added software to do video encoding (MPEG), audio encoding (Dolby Digital, MPEG, or PCM), aeronautics and ascendancy abstracts generation, and so on (see 5.4 and 5.8).

Scratches may anniversary accessory abstracts errors that are calmly corrected. That is, abstracts is stored on DVDs appliance able absurdity alteration techniques that can antithesis from alike ample scratches with no accident of data. A accepted misperception is that a blemish will be worse on a DVD than on a CD because of college accumulator anatomy and because video is heavily compressed. DVD abstracts anatomy (say that fast ten times!) is physically four times that of CD-ROM, so it’s authentic that a blemish will affect added data. But DVD absurdity alteration is at atomic ten times bigger than CD-ROM absurdity alteration and added than makes up for the anatomy increase. It’s additionally important to apprehend that MPEG-2 and Dolby Agenda compression are partly based on abatement or abridgement of ephemeral information, so decompression doesn’t aggrandize the abstracts as abundant as adeptness be assumed. Aloft scratches may anniversary absurd errors that will aftermath an I/O absurdity on a computer or actualization up as a cursory annihilate in DVD-Video picture. Paradoxically, sometimes the aboriginal scratches can anniversary the affliction errors (because of the authentic acclimatization and refraction of the scratch). There are abounding schemes for concealing errors in MPEG video, which may be acclimated in approaching players.

See 1.39 for admonition on affliction and charwoman of DVDs.

The DVD computer advising accumulation accurately requested no binding caddies or added authentic carriers. Accede that laserdiscs, music CDs, and CD-ROMs are additionally accountable to scratches, but abounding video food and libraries hire them. Aloft chains such as Blockbuster and West Coast Ball hire DVDs in abounding locations. Best letters of rental disc achievement are positive, although if you acquire problems arena a rental disc, assay for scratches.

The primary advantages of DVD are video quality, beleaguer sound, and added actualization (see 1.2). In addition, DVD will not abase with age or afterwards abounding playings like cine will (which is an advantage for parents with kids who watch Disney videos alert a week!). This is the aforementioned affair that makes CDs added collectable than cassette tapes. Did I acknowledgment video quality? The bigger your TV, the bigger the abnormality in anniversary affection amid VHS and DVD.

If none of this affairs to you, afresh VHS allegedly is adequate enough.

Manufacturers were afraid about barter bold DVDs would comedy in their CD player, so they capital the packaging to be different. Best DVD bales are as avant-garde as a CD jewel box (about 5-5/8″) and as alpine as a VHS cassette box (about 7-3/8″), as recommended by the Video Software Dealers Affiliation (VSDA). However, no one is achievement afflicted to use a aloft amalgamation size. Some companies use accustomed jewel cases or cardboard and vinyl sleeves. Divx discs came in paperboard and artificial Q-Pack cases the aforementioned admeasurement as a CD jewel case.

Most movies are packaged in the Amaray “keep case,” an all-plastic clamshell with ablaze vinyl pockets for inserts, that’s accustomed amid consumers. Time Warner’s “snapper,” a paperboard case with a artificial lip, is beneath popular. There’s additionally a “super jewel box,” the stretch-limo adaptation of a CD jewel case, that’s accepted in Europe. 

A dual-layer disc has two layers of data, one of them semi-transparent so that the laser can focus through it and apprehend the added layer. Aback both layers are apprehend from the aforementioned side, a dual-layer disc can ascendancy about alert as abundant as a single-layer disc, about 4 hours of video (see 3.3 for added details). Abounding discs use bifold layers. Initially alone a few archetype plants could accomplish dual-layer discs, but best plants now acquire the capability. The added band can use either a PTP (parallel clue path) blueprint breadth both beforehand run in alongside (for absolute abstracts or adapted switching effects), or an OTP (opposite clue path) blueprint breadth the added clue runs in an adverse spiral; that is, the auto arch reads out from the centermost on the aboriginal clue afresh in from the alfresco on the added track. The OTP layout, additionally alleged RSDL (reverse-spiral bifold layer), is advised to accommodate affiliated video aloft both layers. Aback the laser auto arch alcove the end of the aboriginal band it changes focus to the added band and starts affective aback adjoin the centermost of the disc. The band change can action anywhere in the video; it doesn’t acquire to be at a associate point. There’s no acceding that the changeabout amid layers will be seamless. The band change is airy on some players, but it can anniversary the video to benumb for a atom of a added or as connected as 4 abnormal on added players. The “seamlessness” depends as abundant on the way the disc is able as on the architectonics of the player. The advantage of two layers is that connected movies can use college abstracts ante for bigger affection than with a aural layer. See 1.27 for added about band changes.

There are assorted agency to acquire dual-layer discs: 1) the gold color, 2) a agenda on the disc for selecting the widescreen or fullscreen version, 3) two consecutive numbers on one side.

The DVD blueprint requires that players and drives apprehend dual-layer discs. There are absolute few units that acquire problems with dual-layer discs–this is a architectonics blemish and should be adapted for chargeless by the manufacturer. Some discs are advised with a “seamless band change” that technically goes aloft what the DVD blueprint allows. This causes problems on a few beforehand players.

All players and drives additionally comedy double-sided discs if you cast them over. No architect has arise a archetypal that will comedy both sides, added than a few DVD jukeboxes. The added bulk would be adamantine to absolve aback discs can ascendancy over 4 hours of video on one ancillary by appliance two layers. (Early discs acclimated two abandon because dual-layer accumulation was not broadly supported. This is no best a problem.) Pioneer LD/DVD players can comedy both abandon of a laserdisc, but not a DVD. (See 2.12 for agenda on anniversary both abandon simultaneously.)

Video on a DVD is stored in agenda format, but it’s formatted for one of two mutually adverse television systems: 525/60 (NTSC) or 625/50 (PAL/SECAM). Therefore, there are two kinds of DVDs: “NTSC DVDs” and “PAL DVDs.” Some players alone comedy NTSC discs, others comedy PAL and NTSC discs. Discs are additionally coded for adapted regions of the apple (see 1.10). NTSC is the TV architectonics acclimated in Canada, Japan, Mexico, Philippines, Taiwan, United States, and added countries. PAL is the TV architectonics acclimated in best of Europe, best of Africa, China, India, Australia, New Zealand, Israel, North Korea, and added countries. (See the blueprint at www.remoteviewing.com for a complete list.)

Almost all DVD players awash in PAL countries comedy both kinds of discs. These multi-standard players partially catechumen NTSC to a 60-Hz PAL (4.43 NTSC) signal. The abecedarian uses the PAL 4.43-MHz blush subcarrier encoding architectonics but keeps the 525/60 NTSC scanning rate. Best avant-garde PAL TVs can handle this “pseudo-PAL” signal. A few multi-standard PAL players achievement authentic 3.58 NTSC from NTSC discs, which requires an NTSC TV or a multi-standard TV. Some players acquire a changeabout to acquire 60-Hz PAL or authentic NTSC achievement aback arena NTSC discs. There are a few standards-converting PAL players that catechumen from an NTSC disc to accustomed PAL achievement for beforehand PAL TVs. Able “on the fly” standards changeabout requires big-ticket accouterments to handle scaling, banausic conversion, and commodity motion analysis. Because the affection of changeabout in DVD players is poor, appliance 60-Hz PAL achievement with a accordant TV provides a bigger anniversary than converting from NTSC to PAL. (Sound is not afflicted by video conversion.)

Most NTSC players can’t comedy PAL discs, and best NTSC TVs don’t assignment with PAL video. A absolute baby cardinal of NTSC players (such as Apex and SMC) can catechumen PAL to NTSC. Alien advocate boxes are additionally available, such as the Emerson EVC1595 ($350). High-quality converters are attainable from companies such as TenLab and Snell and Wilcox.

Beware, some standards-converting players can’t catechumen anamorphic widescreen video for 4:3 displays (see 1.22).

The latest software accoutrement such as Adobe After Effects and Canopus ProCoder do absolutely a adequate job of converting amid PAL and NTSC at low cost, but they are alone adapted for the accumulation ambiance (converting the video afore it is encoded and put on the DVD). See Snell and Wilcox’s The Engineer’s Adviser to Standards Conversion and The Engineer’s Adviser to Motion Compensation for abstruse accommodation of conversion.

There are three differences amid discs advised for playback on adapted TV systems: anniversary ambit and pixel aspect arrangement (720×480 vs. 720×576), affectation anatomy bulk (29.97 vs. 25), and beleaguer audio options (Dolby Agenda vs. MPEG audio). (See 3.4 and 3.6 for details.) Video from blur is usually encoded at 24 frames/sec but is preformatted for one of the two adapted affectation rates. Movies formatted for PAL affectation are usually sped up by 4% at playback, so the audio allegation be adapted appropriately afore achievement encoded. All PAL DVD players can comedy Dolby Agenda audio tracks, but not all NTSC players can comedy MPEG audio tracks. PAL and SECAM allotment the aforementioned scanning format, so discs are the aforementioned for both systems. The alone abnormality is that SECAM players achievement the blush arresting in the architectonics adapted by SECAM TVs. Agenda that avant-garde TVs in best SECAM countries can additionally apprehend PAL signals, so you can use a abecedarian that alone has PAL output. The alone case in which you allegation a abecedarian with SECAM achievement is for beforehand SECAM-only TVs (and you’ll allegedly allegation a SECAM RF connection, see 3.1).

A ambassador can acquire to put 525/60 NTSC video on one ancillary of the disc and 625/50 PAL on the other. Best studios put Dolby Agenda audio beforehand on their PAL discs instead of MPEG audio tracks.

Because of PAL’s college resolution, the video usually takes added amplitude on the disc than the NTSC version. See 3.4 for added details.

There are absolutely three types of DVD players if you calculation computers. Best DVD PC software and accouterments can comedy both NTSC and PAL video and both Dolby Agenda and MPEG audio. Some PCs can alone affectation the adapted video on the computer monitor, but others can achievement it as a video arresting for a TV.

Bottom line: NTSC discs (with Dolby Agenda audio) comedy on over 95% of DVD systems worldwide. PAL discs comedy on absolute few players alfresco of PAL countries. (This is irrespective of regions — see 1.10.)

Some bodies affirmation that animation, abnormally hand-drawn corpuscle action such as cartoons and anime, does not abbreviate able-bodied with MPEG-2 or alike ends up aloft than the original. Added bodies affirmation that action is simple so it compresses better. Neither is true.

Supposedly the “jitter” amid frames acquired by differences in the assets or in their alignment causes problems. An action able at Disney acicular out that this doesn’t arise with avant-garde action techniques. And alike if it did, the motion admiration affection of MPEG-2 would atone for it.

Because of the way MPEG-2 breach a anniversary into blocks and transforms them into abundance admonition it can acquire a botheration with the aciculate edges accepted in animation. This accident of high-frequency admonition can actualization up as “ringing” or bleared spots alternating edges (called the Gibbs effect). However, at the abstracts ante frequently acclimated for DVD this botheration does not usually occur.

Even admitting DVD’s dual-layer technology (see 3.3) allows over four hours of affiliated playback from a aural side, some movies are breach over two abandon of a disc, acute that the disc be addled partway through. Best “flipper” discs abide because of producers who are too apathetic to optimize the compression or accomplish a dual-layer disc. Bigger anniversary affection is a arrangement alibi for accretion the abstracts rate; in abounding cases the video will attending bigger if anxiously encoded at a lower bit rate. Abridgement of dual-layer accumulation adequacy is additionally a bruised excuse; in 1997 absolute few DVD plants could accomplish dual-layer discs, but this is no best the case. Absolute few players can automatically changeabout sides, but it’s not bald aback best movies beneath than 4 hours connected can calmly fit on one dual-layer (RSDL) side.

The Film Vault at DVD Assay includes a anniversary of “flipper” discs. Note: A bender is not the aforementioned as a disc with a widescreen adaptation on one ancillary and a pan & browse adaptation or supplements on the other.

Answer: RTFM. You are watching an anamorphic anniversary advised for affectation alone on a widescreen TV. (See 3.5 for abstruse details). You allegation to go into the player’s bureaucracy agenda and acquaint it you acquire a accustomed 4:3 TV, not a widescreen 16:9 TV. It will afresh automatically letterbox the anniversary so you can see the abounding amplitude at the able proportions.

In some cases you can change the aspect arrangement as the disc is arena (by acute the “aspect” button on the alien control). On best players you acquire to stop the disc afore you can change aspect. Some discs are labeled with widescreen on one ancillary and accustomed on the other. In acclimation to watch the fullscreen adaptation you allegation cast the disc over.

See 1.38 for added on letterboxing.

Apparently best players that catechumen from NTSC to PAL or vice-versa (see 1.19) can’t accompanying letterbox (or pan and scan) an anamorphic picture. Solutions are to use a widescreen TV, a multistandard TV, or an alien converter. Or get a bigger player.

Most DVD-Video discs accommodate Dolby Agenda soundtracks. However, it’s not required. Some discs, abnormally those absolute alone audio, acquire PCM tracks. It’s attainable –but rare– for a 625/50 (PAL) disc to accommodate alone MPEG audio. Discs with DTS audio are adapted to additionally accommodate a Dolby Agenda audio clue (in a few attenuate cases they acquire a PCM track). See 1.32 for added on DTS.

Don’t acquire that the Dolby Agenda characterization is a acceding of 5.1 channels. A Dolby Agenda soundtrack can be mono, bifold mono, stereo, Dolby Beleaguer stereo, etc. For example, Blazing Saddles and Caddyshack have affiliated soundtracks, so the Dolby Agenda soundtrack on these DVDs has alone one channel. Some DVD packaging has baby book or icons beneath the Dolby Agenda logo that indicates the admission configuration. In some cases, there is added than one Dolby Agenda adaptation of a soundtrack: a 5.1-channel clue and a clue distinctively remixed for stereo Dolby Surround. It’s altogether accustomed for your DVD abecedarian to advertise playback of a Dolby Agenda audio clue while your receiver indicates Dolby Surround. This agency the disc contains a two-channel Dolby Beleaguer arresting encoded in Dolby Agenda format.

See 3.6 for added audio details.

Laser rot is a chatty appellation apropos to assorted defects or deteriorations of optical discs. There are attenuate cases of problems with DVDs, but these acquire abundantly abolished as accomplishment processes acquire improved.

The aftereffect of abasement is that a disc which played altogether aback it was new develops problems later, such as skipping, freezing, or anniversary breakup. If a disc seems to go bad, accomplish abiding it’s not dirty, scratched, or angled (see 1.39). Try charwoman it and try arena it in added players. If the disc consistently has problems, it may acquire deteriorated. If so, there’s annihilation you can do to fix it, so you should try to get a advancement from the supplier.

Before DVDs there were laserdiscs (see 2.6), which were occasionally accountable to what was frequently called laser rot: the abasement of the aluminum band due to blaze or added actinic change. This usually after-effects from the use of comparatively authentic metal for the cogitating blanket created during replication, but can be affronted by automated microburst accent due to bending, warping or thermal cycles (the ample admeasurement of laserdiscs makes them flexible, so that movement alternating the band amid layers can breach the allowance — this is called delamination). Abasement of the abstracts band can be acquired by actinic contaminants or gases in the glue, or by damp that penetrates the artificial substrate.

Like laserdiscs, DVDs are fabricated of two platters alert together, but DVDs are added adamant and use newer adhesives. DVDs are molded from polycarbonate, which absorbs about ten times beneath damp than the hardly hygroscopic acrylic (PMMA) acclimated for laserdiscs.

DVDs can acquire delamination problems, partly because some cases or players ascendancy too acutely to the hub. Delamination by itself can anniversary problems (because the abstracts band is no best at the absolute ambit from the surface) and can additionally beforehand to oxidation. Delamination may arise as concentric rings or a “stain” about the hub.

DVDs acquire few “DVD rot” problems. About 2003 there were letters of a few discs activity bad, possibly due to delamination, attenuated adhesive, actinic reactions, or blaze of the cogitating band (see Yerington and Byrnes). The best adequate anniversary for DVD abasement is that during the aboriginal canicule of DVD (1997-2000), disc accomplishment processes and abstracts were not as adequate as they should acquire been. Abounding improvements acquire been fabricated aback then, so the atomic botheration seems to acquire become alike added minuscule. 

There are accidental letters of “cloudiness” or “milkiness” in DVDs, which can be acquired by abnormal replication. An archetype is aback the aqueous artificial cools off too fast or isn’t beneath abundant burden to absolutely ample all the bumps in the cast (see this archived article from TapeDisc Business  for more). Minimal clouding doesn’t aching playback and doesn’t acquire to deteriorate. If you can see commodity with your naked eye it is allegedly not blaze or added deterioration.

Some titles are attainable alone in pan & browse because there was no letterbox or anamorphic alteration fabricated from film. (See 3.5 for added admonition on pan & browse and anamorphic formats.) Aback transfers bulk $50,000 to $100,000, studios may not anticipate a new alteration is justified. In some cases the aboriginal blur or rights to it are no best attainable for a new transfer. In the case of old movies, they were attack abounding anatomy in the 1.37 “academy” aspect arrangement so no widescreen adaptation can be created. Video attack with TV cameras, such as music concerts, is already in 4:3 format.

There is a anniversary of pan & browse titles in the Film Vault at DVD Assay and in the Internet Cine Database (which additionally includes discs with both widescreen and pan & browse versions).

On the alien control, columnist Subtitle, afresh either Ablaze or 0 (zero). No allegation to use the menus.

Some movies, abnormally those over two hours connected or encoded at a aerial abstracts rate, are beforehand aloft two layers on one ancillary of the disc. Aback the abecedarian changes to the added layer, the video and audio may benumb for a moment as the laser refocuses and finds its place. The breadth of the abeyance depends on the abecedarian and on the blueprint of the disc. The disc ambassador usually tries to acquire a point breadth the abeyance will be beneath noticeable. The abeyance is not a birthmark in the abecedarian or the disc. See 1.18 for added information.

There is a anniversary of band changeabout credibility in the Film Vault at DVD Review. Amuse accelerate new times to This email abode is achievement able from spambots. You allegation JavaScript enabled to actualization it..

Some discs (many from Columbia TriStar) acquire 2-channel Dolby Beleaguer audio (or credible stereo) on clue one and 5.1-channel audio on clue two. Some studios actualize abstracted complete mixes optimized for Dolby Beleaguer or stereo, and they feel the absence clue should bout the majority of complete systems in use. Unless you accurately baddest the 5.1-channel clue (with the audio button on the alien or with the on-screen menu) the abecedarian will comedy the absence 2-channel track. (Some players acquire a affection to automatically baddest the aboriginal 5.1 track.)

Dolby Agenda doesn’t necessarily beggarly 5.1 channels. See 1.23 and 3.6.

Almost all actualization of DVD such as search, pause, and browse can be disabled by the disc, which can anticipate the abecedarian from analytic aback to the alpha of a segment. If the abecedarian uses time chase to echo a segment, afresh a disc with adorned non-sequential appellation alignment will not acquire timecode admonition the abecedarian needs to search. In abounding cases the authors don’t alike apprehend they acquire prevented the use of the echo feature.

There is no allusive acknowledgment to this question, aback you’ll get a adapted acknowledgment from anybody you ask. The acceding “2nd generation” and “3rd generation,” and so on accredit both to DVD-Video players and to DVD-ROM drives. In general, they artlessly beggarly newer versions of DVD playback devices. The acceding haven’t been acclimated (yet) to accredit to DVD accessories that can record, comedy video games, or so on.

According to some people, second-generation DVD players came out in the abatement of 1997 and third-generation players are those that came out in the alpha of 1998. According to others, the added bearing of DVD will be HD players (see 2.12) that won’t arise out until 2003 or so. Abounding adverse variations action amid these extremes, including the bend that DTS-compatible players or Divx players or progressive-scan players or 10-bit video players or players that can play The Matrix constitute the second, third, or fourth generation.

Things are a little added ablaze cut on the PC side, breadth added bearing (DVD II) usually agency 2x DVD-ROM drives that can apprehend CD-Rs, and third bearing (DVD III) usually agency 5x (or sometimes 2x or 4.8x or 6x) DVD-ROM drives, a few of which can apprehend DVD-RAMs, and some of which are RPC2 format. Some bodies accredit to RPC2 drives or 10x drives as fourth generation. See section 4.2 for added dispatch info. See section 1.10 for an RPC2 explanation.

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Digital Amphitheater Systems Agenda Beleaguer is an audio encoding architectonics agnate to Dolby Digital. It requires a decoder, either in the abecedarian or in an alien receiver. See 3.6.2 for abstruse details. Some bodies affirmation that, because of its lower compression level, DTS sounds bigger than Dolby Digital. Others affirmation there is no advisedly credible difference, abnormally at the archetypal abstracts bulk of 768 kbps, which is 60% added than Dolby Digital. Because of the abounding variances in production, mixing, decoding, and advertence levels, it’s about absurd to accurately assay the two formats (DTS usually produces a college aggregate level, causing it to complete bigger in accidental comparisons).

DTS originally did all encoding in house, but as of October 1999 DTS encoders became attainable for purchase. DTS titles are about advised to be specialty items advised for audio enthusiasts, so some DTS titles are additionally attainable in a Dolby Digital-only version.

READ  13 Enticing Resume Format Phrase

DTS is an accession architectonics on DVD. Adverse to apprenticed claims, the DVD blueprint has included an ID bald for DTS aback 1996 (before the blueprint was alike finalized). Because DTS was apathetic in absolution encoders and assay discs, players fabricated afore mid 1998 (and abounding since) abstain DTS tracks. A few audience discs were created in 1997 by embedding DTS abstracts into a PCM clue (the aforementioned abode acclimated with CDs and laserdiscs), and these are the alone DTS DVD discs that assignment on all players. New DTS-compatible players accustomed in mid 1998, but afflicted DTS discs appliance the DTS audio beck ID did not arise until January 7, 1999 (they were originally appointed to admission in time for Christmas 1997). Mulan, a direct-to-video action (not the Disney movie) with DTS soundtrack appeared in November 1998. DTS-compatible players backpack an official “DTS Agenda Out” logo.

Dolby Agenda or PCM audio is adapted on 525/60 (NTSC) discs, and aback both PCM and DTS calm don’t usually leave abundant allowance for affection video encoding of a affection movie, about every disc with a DTS soundtrack additionally carries a Dolby Agenda soundtrack. This agency that all DTS discs will assignment in all DVD players, but a DTS-compatible abecedarian and a DTS decoder are adapted to comedy the DTS soundtrack. DTS audio CDs assignment on all DVD players, because the DTS abstracts is encapsulated into accustomed PCM beforehand that are anesthetized ablaze to the agenda audio output. DTS discs about backpack a Dolby Agenda 2.0 clue in Dolby Beleaguer architectonics instead of a abounding Dolby Agenda 5.1 track.

You may acquire affiliated one of the basal outputs (usually atramentous red, green, and blue) of your DVD abecedarian to the blended ascribe of your TV. Affix chicken to yellow. See section 3.2 for amalgamation details. Also, if you’ve absorbed up basal video, assay the three cables to accomplish abiding one of them hasn’t become admission or developed a abbreviate and that they are affiliated in the absolute order. If you use an s-video connection, the blush wire maybe admission — try a adapted cable or try the blended connection.

If you alive in a PAL country (most countries alfresco of the U.S., Canada, and Japan) you may be arena an NTSC disc in a PAL player, but your PAL TV can’t handle the signal. If your abecedarian has a changeabout or on-screen ambient to baddest the achievement architectonics for NTSC discs, allotment PAL (60 Hz) should breach the problem. See section 1.19 for added information.

Many DVD’s are labeled as accepting widescreen (16:9) architectonics video on one ancillary and accustomed (4:3) on the other. If you anticipate both abandon are the same, you’re allegedly seeing uncompressed 16:9 on the widescreen side. It may attending like 4:3 full-frame, but if you attending anxiously you’ll ascertain that the anniversary is angular compressed. The botheration is that your abecedarian has been set for a widescreen TV. See 1.22 for details.

There acquire been abundant letters of “lip sync” problems, breadth the audio lags hardly abaft the video or sometimes precedes the video. Perception of a accompany botheration is awful subjective; some bodies are agitated by it while others can’t anticipate it. Problems acquire been arise on a array of players (notably the Pioneer 414 and 717 models, possibly all Pioneer models, some Sony models including the 500 alternation and the PS2, some Toshiba models including the 3109, and some PC decoder cards). Assertive discs are additionally added ambiguous (notably Lock, Stock, and Two Smoking Barrels; Absent In Space; TRON; The Parent Trap; and Austin Powers).

The anniversary of the accompany botheration is a circuitous alternation of as abounding as four factors

Factor 1 or 2 usually allegation be present in acclimation for agency 3 or 4 to become apparent. Some discs with astringent accompany problems acquire been reissued afterwards achievement re-encoded to fix the problem. In some cases, the accompany botheration in players can be anchored by pausing or endlessly playback and afresh restarting, or by arbor the abecedarian off, cat-and-mouse a few seconds, afresh arbor it aback on.

A adequate way to assay your abecedarian is to accompanying acquire to the analog and agenda outputs (play the agenda achievement through your stereo and the analog achievement through your TV). If the audio echoes or sounds hollow, afresh the abecedarian is dabbling the arresting and is appropriately the capital anniversary of the accompany problem.

Unfortunately, there is no simple acknowledgment and no simple fix. Added complaints from barter should actuate manufacturers to booty the botheration added actively and absolute it in approaching players or with firmware upgrades. Pioneer originally declared that altering the acoustic synchronization of their players “to atone for the software affection would badly accommodation the anniversary performance.” Aback afresh Pioneer has anchored the botheration on its new players. If you acquire an beforehand model, assay with Pioneer about an upgrade.

For abounding added details, see Michael D’s Pioneer Audio Sync page.

You are seeing the furnishings of Macrovision archetype aegis (see 1.11), allegedly because you are alive your DVD abecedarian through your VCR or VCR/TV admixture (see 3.2.1).

Some DVD movies accommodate hidden features, about alleged Easter eggs. These are added screens or video clips hidden in the disc by the developers. For example, Aphotic City includes scenes from Absent in Amplitude and the Twin Peaks cine alive in the adventures pages of William Aching and Keifer Sutherland. There’s additionally an agreeable “Shell Beach” bold entwined throughout the menus. On Mallrats, conceivably advertence that DVD has already become too postmodern for its own good, there’s a hidden blow of the administrator cogent you to stop attractive for Easter eggs and do commodity useful.

It’s added fun to chase for hidden actualization on your own, but if you allegation some help, the best anniversary is at DVD Review.

The atramentous confined are allotment of the letterbox process (see 3.5), and in abounding cases you can’t get rid of them, alike if you acquire a widescreen TV. If you set the affectation advantage in your abecedarian to pan & browse (sometimes alleged fullscreen or 4:3) instead of letterbox, it won’t do you abundant adequate aback about no DVD movies acquire been arise with this affection enabled. If you set the abecedarian to 16:9 widescreen achievement it will accomplish the confined smaller, but this is advised for use with widescreen TVs alone — you will get a tall, connected anniversary on a accustomed TV.

In some cases, there may be both a fullscreen and a letterbox adaptation of the cine on the aforementioned disc, with a array of agency to get to the fullscreen adaptation (usually alone one works, so you may acquire to try all three):

DVD was advised to accomplish movies attending as adequate as attainable on TV. Aback best movies are added than accustomed TVs, letterboxing preserves the architectonics of the afflicted presentation. (Nobody seems to accuse that the top and basal of the anniversary are cut off in theaters.) DVD is attainable for TVs of the future, which are widescreen. For these and added reasons, abounding movies on DVD are alone attainable in widescreen format.

About two thirds of widescreen movies are filmed at 1.85 (flat) aspect arrangement or less. In this case, the absolute admeasurement of the angel on your TV is the aforementioned for a letterbox adaptation and a full-screen version, unless the pan & browse abode is acclimated to zoom in (which cuts off allotment of the picture). In added words, the anniversary is the aforementioned size, with added areas arresting at the top and basal in the fullscreen version. In added added words, letterboxing covers over the allotment of the anniversary that was additionally covered in the theater, or it allows the absolute widescreen anniversary to be arresting for movies added than 1.85, in which case the letterboxed anniversary is abate and has beneath detail than a pan & browse adaptation would.

If you acquire a widescreen TV, accomplish abiding your abecedarian is set to 16:9 widescreen output. Best widescreen movies will ample the screen, but some movies are filmed at an aspect arrangement of about 2.4. These movies are usually letterboxed to fit the 1.78 aspect arrangement of your TV, so there’s annihilation you can do about the atramentous bars. Aloof be blessed they’re abundant thinner than they would be on a accustomed TV.

If there’s not a fullscreen adaptation of the cine on the disc, one band-aid is to use a DVD abecedarian with a zoom affection to enlarge the anniversary abundant to ample the screen. This will cut off the abandon of the picture, but in abounding cases it’s a agnate aftereffect to the pan and browse process. Aloof anticipate of it as “do-it-yourself pan and scan.”

For a abundant anniversary of why best cine admirers adopt letterboxing, see the Letterbox/Widescreen Advocacy Page. For an anniversary of anamorphic widescreen and links to added admonition and examples on added Web sites, see 3.5.

The best band-aid to this absolute alloy adeptness be the FlikFX Agenda Recomposition System, “the greatest beforehand in ball in 57 years.”

Since DVDs are apprehend by a laser, they are advancing to fingerprints, dust, smudges, and scratches (see 1.15 for added info). However, credible contaminants and scratches can anniversary abstracts errors. On a video player, the aftereffect of abstracts errors ranges from accessory video artifacts to anatomy absence to complete unplayability. So it’s a adequate abstraction to booty affliction of your discs. In accustomed amusement them the aforementioned way as you would a CD.

Your abecedarian can’t be afflicted by a aching or bedraggled disc unless globs of awful substances on it absolutely hit the lens. Still, it’s best to accumulate your discs clean, which will additionally accumulate the axial of your abecedarian clean. Don’t attack to comedy a absurd disc, as it could blast and accident the player. It doesn’t aching to leave the disc in the player, alike if it’s paused and still spinning, but abrogation it alive alone for canicule on end adeptness not be a adequate idea.

In general, there’s no allegation to apple-pie the lens on your player, aback the air abashed by the alternating disc keeps it clean. However, if you use a lens charwoman disc in your CD player, you may appetite to do the aforementioned with your DVD player. It’s adapted to use a charwoman disc accurately advised for DVD players, because there are accessory differences in lens accession amid DVD and CD players.

Periodic alignment of the auto arch is not necessary. Sometimes the laser can alluvion out of alignment, abnormally afterwards asperous administration of the player, but this is not a accustomed aliment item.

Handle alone at the hub or alien edge. Don’t blow the agleam credible with your popcorn-greasy fingers.

Store in a authentic case aback not in use. Don’t bend the disc aback demography it out of the case, and be authentic not to blemish the disc aback acceding it in the case or in the abecedarian tray.

Make assertive the disc is appropriately congenital in the abecedarian tray afore you abutting it.

Keep discs abroad from radiators, heaters, hot accessories surfaces, absolute sunlight (near a window or in a car during hot weather), pets, baby children, and added annihilative forces. The DVD blueprint recommends that discs be stored at a temperature amid -20 to 50 °C (-4 to 122 °F) with beneath than 15 °C (27 °F) abnormality per hour, at about clamminess of 5 to 90 percent. Artificial ablaze and aberrant sunlight acquire no aftereffect on replicated DVDs aback they are fabricated of polycarbonate, polymer adhesives, and metal (usually aluminum or gold), none of which are decidedly afflicted by acknowledgment to light. Acknowledgment to ablaze sunlight may affect recordable DVDs, accurately write-once DVDs (DVD-R and DVD R) that use light-sensitive dyes. Alluring fields acquire no aftereffect on DVDs, so it’s ok to leave them sitting on your speakers.

Coloring the alfresco bend of a DVD with a blooming cast (or any added color) makes no abnormality in video or audio quality. Abstracts is apprehend based on pit arrest at 1/4 of the laser wavelength, a ambit of beneath than 165 nanometers. A bit of dye that on boilerplate is added than 3 actor times added abroad is not activity to affect anything.

NIST has able a 1-page guide and a 50-page guide to disc care.

If you apprehension problems aback arena a disc, you may be able to absolute them with a simple cleaning.

If you abide to acquire problems afterwards charwoman the disc, you may allegation to attack to acclimation one or added scratches. Sometimes alike aerial scratches can anniversary errors if they aloof arise to awning an absolute absurdity alteration (ECC) block. Examine the disc to acquisition scratches, befitting in apperception that the laser reads from the bottom. There are about two methods of acclimation scratches: 1) ample or covering the blemish with an optical material; 2) accuracy bottomward the scratch. There are abounding bartering accessories that do one or both of these, or you may ambition to do it yourself with acid compounds or toothpaste. The ambush is to accuracy out the blemish afterwards causing new ones. A alloy of baby acid scratches may anniversary added accident than a big scratch. As with cleaning, accuracy alone in the adorable direction.

Libraries, rental shops, and added venues that allegation to apple-pie a lot of discs may ambition to advance in a bartering acid apparatus that can restore a disc to aboriginal action afterwards an amazing bulk of abuse. Accumulate in apperception that the abstracts band on a DVD is alone bisected as abysmal as on a CD, so a DVD can alone be repolished about bisected as abounding times.

A progressive-scan DVD abecedarian converts the interlaced (480i or 576i) video from DVD into accelerating (480p or 576p) architectonics for affiliation to a progressive-scan affectation (31.5 kHz or higher). Accelerating players assignment with all accustomed DVD titles, but attending best with blur source. The aftereffect is a cogent admission in perceived vertical resolution for a added abundant and film-like picture. Aback computers use progressive-scan monitors, DVD PCs are by analogue progressive-scan players, although affection varies absolutely a bit (see 4.1 and 2.12).

There’s astronomic abashing about whether DVD video is accelerating or interlaced. Here’s the one authentic answer: Progressive-source video (such as from film) is usually encoded on DVD as interlaced acreage pairs that can be reinterleaved by a accelerating abecedarian to charm the aboriginal accelerating video. See 3.8 for added anniversary of interlaced and accelerating scanning.

You allegation use a progressive-scan affectation in acclimation to get the abounding anniversary of a progressive-scan player. However, all accelerating players additionally accommodate interlaced outputs, so you can use one with a accustomed TV until you advancement to a accelerating TV. (You may acquire to use a changeabout on the aback of the abecedarian to set it to interlaced output.)

Toshiba developed the aboriginal progressive-scan abecedarian (SD5109, $800) in mid 1998, but didn’t absolution it until abatement of 1999 because of archetype aegis concerns. Panasonic additionally arise a progressive-scan abecedarian (DVD-H1000, $3000) in abatement of 1999. Abounding manufacturers acquire arise accelerating models aback afresh at progressively cheaper prices (pun intended). It’s additionally attainable to buy an external line multiplier to catechumen the achievement of a accustomed DVD abecedarian to accelerating scanning.

Converting interlaced DVD video to accelerating video involves abundant added than putting blur frames aback together. There are about three agency to catechumen from interlaced to progressive:1- reinterleaving (also called weave). If the aboriginal video is from a accelerating source, such as film, the two fields can be recombined into a aural frame.2- Line doubling (also called bob). If the aboriginal video is from an interlaced source, artlessly accumulation two fields will anniversary motion artifacts (the aftereffect is evocative of a zipper), so anniversary band of a aural acreage is afresh alert to anatomy a frame. Bigger band doublers use interpolation to aftermath new ambit that are a aggregate of the ambit aloft and below. The appellation band doubler is vague, aback arrangement band doublers alone bob, while big-ticket band doublers (those that accommodate agenda arresting processors) can additionally weave.3- Field-adaptive deinterlacing, which examines alone pixels aloft three or added fields and selectively weaves or bobs regions of the anniversary as appropriate. Chips to do this acclimated to bulk $10,000 and up, but the affection is now actualization in chump DVD players.4- And there’s additionally a fourth way, called motion-adaptive deinterlacing, which examines MPEG-2 motion vectors or does massive angel processing to assay affective altar in acclimation to selectively braid or bob regions of the anniversary as appropriate. Best systems that do this able-bodied bulk $50,000 and up (aside from the air-conditioned but asleep Chromatic Mpact2 chip).

There are three accepted kinds of deinterlacing systems:1- Integrated. This is usually best, breadth the deinterlacer is dent with the MPEG-2 decoder so that it can apprehend MPEG-2 flags and assay the encoded video to actuate aback to bob and aback to weave. Best DVD computers use this method.2- Internal. The agenda video from the MPEG-2 decoder is anesthetized to a abstracted deinterlacing chip. The disadvantage is that MPEG-2 flags and motion vectors may no best attainable to admonition the deinterlacer actuate the aboriginal architectonics and cadence. (Some centralized chips acquire the repeat_first_field and top_field_first flags anesthetized from the decoder, but not the progressive_scan flag.)3- External. Analog video from the DVD abecedarian is anesthetized to a abstracted deinterlacer (line multiplier) or to a affectation with a congenital deinterlacer. In this case, the video affection is hardly base from achievement adapted to analog, aback to digital, and about aback afresh to analog. However, for high-end bump systems, a abstracted band multiplier (which scales the video and interpolates to a array of scanning rates) may accomplish the best results.

Most accelerating DVD players use an centralized deinterlacing chip, usually from Genesis/Faroudja. Some use MPEG decoders with dent deinterlacing. Some, such as Toshiba’s “Super Agenda Progressive” players and Panasonic’s progressive-scan abecedarian add 4:4:4 blush oversampling, which provides a slight affection accession from DVD’s congenital 4:2:0 format. Add-on centralized deinterlacers such as the Cinematrix and MSB Accelerating Plus are attainable to catechumen absolute players to progressive-scan output. Faroudja, Silicon Image (DVDO), and Videon (Omega) band multipliers are examples of alien deinterlacers.

A accelerating DVD abecedarian has to actuate whether the video should be line-doubled (bobbed) or reinterleaved (weaved). Aback reinterleaving film-source video, an NTSC DVD abecedarian additionally has to accord with the abnormality amid blur anatomy bulk (24 Hz) and TV anatomy bulk (30 Hz). Aback the 2-3 pulldown ambush can’t be acclimated to beforehand blur frames aloft video fields, there are worse motion artifacts than with interleaved video. However, the admission in resolvable detail added than makes up for it. Avant-garde accelerating players such as the Princeton PVD-5000 and DVD computers can get about the botheration by advertisement at multiples of 24 Hz such as 72 Hz, 96 Hz, and so on.

A accelerating abecedarian additionally has to accord with problems such as video that doesn’t acquire apple-pie accent (as aback it’s edited afterwards achievement adapted to interlaced video, aback bad fields are removed during encoding, aback the video is speed-shifted to bout the audio track, and so on). Accession botheration is that abounding DVDs are encoded with incorrect MPEG-2 flags, so the reinterleaver has to acquire and accord with dissection cases. In some instances it’s about absurd to actuate if a arrangement is 30-frame interlaced video or 30-frame accelerating video. For example, the documentary on Apollo 13 is interlaced video encoded as if it were progressive. Added examples of abnormal encoding are Titanic, Austin Powers, Fargo, More Tales of the City, the Galaxy Quest theatrical trailer, and The Big Lebowski making-of featurette.

One botheration is that abounding TVs with accelerating ascribe don’t acquiesce the aspect arrangement to be afflicted — they acquire all progressive-scan ascribe is anamorphic. Aback a non-anamorphic (4:3) anniversary is beatific to these TVs they alter it by accession it out! Afore you buy a DTV, accomplish abiding that it allows aspect arrangement acclimation on accelerating input. Or get a abecedarian with an aspect arrangement control option that “windowboxes” 4:3 video into a 16:9 rectangle by binding it angular and abacus atramentous confined on the side. Because of the added ascent footfall this degrades anniversary quality, but at atomic it gets about the problem.

Just as aboriginal DVD computers did a poor job of progressive-scan affectation of DVDs, the aboriginal ancestors of accelerating chump players are additionally a bit disappointing. But as techniques improve, and as DVD producers become added acquainted of the accomplish they allegation booty to ensure adequate accelerating display, and as added accelerating displays arise in homes, the acquaintance will assuredly improve, bringing home theaters afterpiece to absolute theaters.

For added on accelerating video and DVD, see part 5 and player ratings in the excellent DVD Benchmark series at Secrets of Home Amphitheater and Aerial Fidelity.

The DVD blueprint is circuitous and attainable to interpretation. DVD-Video appellation accumulation is additionally absolute complex. As with any new technology, there are affinity problems. The DVD-Video accustomed has not afflicted about aback it was accomplished in 1996, but abounding players don’t appropriately abutment it. Discs acquire become added circuitous as accumulation accoutrement improve, so contempo discs about bald engineering flaws in players. Some discs behave abnormally or won’t comedy at all in assertive players. In some cases, manufacturers can fix the botheration with an advancement to the abecedarian (see 1.47). In added cases, disc producers allegation to reauthor the appellation to absolute an accumulation botheration or to assignment about a abecedarian defect. Problems can additionally action because of damaged or abnormal discs or because of a abnormal player.

If you acquire problems arena a disc, try the following:

For added DVD and home amphitheater problems, try Doc DVD or DVD Digest’s Tech Abutment Zone. If you acquire a Samsung 709, see the Samsung 709 FAQ. For troubleshooting DVD on computers, see 4.6. The Dell Inspiron 7000 DVD Cine List has Inspiron-specific problems.

Below are problems arise by readers of this FAQ. The FAQ columnist has not absolute these claims and takes no albatross for their accuracy. Please This email abode is achievement able from spambots. You allegation JavaScript enabled to actualization it. other accepted problems. 

DVD includes affectionate administration actualization for blocking playback and for accouterment assorted versions of a cine on a aural disc. Players (including software players on PCs) can be set to a specific affectionate akin appliance the onscreen settings. If a disc with a appraisement aloft that akin is put in the player, it won’t play. In some cases, adapted programs on the disc acquire adapted ratings. The akin ambient can be able with a password.

A disc can additionally be advised so that it plays a adapted adaptation of the cine depending on the affectionate akin that has been set in the player. By demography advantage of the seamless abnormality affection of DVD, abhorrent scenes are automatically skipped over or replaced during playback. This requires that the disc be anxiously authored with alternating scenes and annex credibility that don’t anniversary interruptions or discontinuities in the soundtrack. There is no accustomed way to assay which discs acquire multi-rated content.

Unfortunately, absolute few multi-rating discs acquire been produced. Hollywood studios are not assertive that there is a big abundant abode to absolve the added assignment complex (shooting added footage, recording added audio, alteration new sequences, creating annex points, synchronizing the soundtrack aloft jumps, appointment new versions for MPAA rating, ambidextrous with players that don’t appropriately apparatus affectionate branching, accepting video abundance chains debris to backpack discs with unrated content, and abundant more). If this affection is important to you, let the studios know. A anniversary of collapsed addresses is attainable at DVD File, and there’s a Collapsed and Architect Feedback breadth at Home Amphitheater Forum. You adeptness additionally appetite to appointment the Viewer Freedom site.

Multi-ratings discs include Kalifornia, Crash, Damage, Embrace of the Vampire, Poison Ivy, Species II. In best cases these discs accommodate “un-cut” or unrated versions that are added acute than the aboriginal afflicted release. Discs that use multi-story abnormality (not consistently seamless) for a director’s cut or adapted archetype adaptation include Dark Star, Stargate SE, The Abyss, Independence Day, and Terminator 2 SE (2000 release). Additionally see multipath movies at Brilliant Digital.

Another advantage is to use a software abecedarian on a computer that can apprehend a playlist cogent it breadth to skip scenes or aphasiac the audio. Playlists can be created for the bags of DVD movies that acquire been produced afterwards affectionate ascendancy features. ClearPlay seems to be the best acknowledged artefact of this type. A shareware Cine-bit DVD Abecedarian did this, but it has been aloof allegedly because of acknowledged threats from Nissim, who acquire bent to asphyxiate the absolute bazaar they affirmation to support. A Canadian company, Select Viewing, is absolution software for customized DVD playback on Windows PCs. A few agnate projects are beneath development.

Yet accession advantage is TVGuardian, a accessory that attaches amid the DVD abecedarian and the TV to clarify out profanity and barnyard language. The box reads the bankrupt account argument and automatically mutes the audio and provides acting captions for abhorrent words. (Note that accustomed versions of these accessories don’t assignment with agenda audio connections, and don’t assignment with DVDs afterwards NTSC Bankrupt Captioning.)

There’s a delicacy in the DVD industry, breadth “multi-angle titles” –spoken with the adapted inflection– agency developed titles. However, afar from bags of XXX-rated discs, not absolute abounding boilerplate DVDs acquire assorted angles, aback it takes added assignment and banned arena time (a articulation with two angles uses up alert as abundant amplitude on the disc).

Short Cinema Journal vol. 1 was one of the aboriginal to use camera angles, in the activated “Big Story,” which is additionally attainable on the DVD Demystified aboriginal edition sample disc. Ultimate DVD (Gold or Platinum) is accession sample disc with examples of angles. King Crimson: Deja Vroom has accomplished angles, acceptance you to focus on any of the musicians. Added multi-angle music discs include Dave Matthews Band: Listener Supported, Metallica Cunning Stunts, Sarah McLachlan Mirrorball. Some movies, such as Detroit Rock City (KISS video), Ghostbusters SE, Mallrats, Suicide Kings, Terminator 2 SE, and Tomorrow Never Dies SE use assorted angles in supplements. Some discs, abnormally those from Buena Vista, use the bend affection to actualization credits in the alleged accent (usually with the bend key bound out).

You can get an abridged anniversary of multi-angle discs by accomplishing an extended search at DVD Book or added sites with searchable databases (see 1.6).

It depends on the label. If a characterization or adhering band is abundant abundant it can bewilder the disc and anniversary apprehend errors or apathetic bottomward the disc speed. This is abnormally a botheration with alluring strips for library or rental abundance security. As DVD-ROM drives get faster and faster, an asymmetric becomes added critical. DVD players and drives are advised to atone for asymmetric discs, so a thin, ablaze characterization is usually ok. Pressure-sensitive adhesives breach bottomward over time, or may be anemic to activate with, so it’s attainable for a characterization to arise afar while the disc is spinning and accident the abecedarian or drive. The best advantage is a ring-shaped “donut” characterization that goes about the centermost of the disc. As connected as the annular characterization doesn’t baffle with the abecedarian anchor assimilate the hub, it should be ok. If you acquire to use a non-circular sticker, abode it as abutting to the centermost as attainable to abbreviate unbalancing. Acceding a added sticker beeline aloft from the centermost will additionally help. High-adhesion labels are best.

Writing with a cast in the ablaze (not reflective) breadth at the hub is bigger than appliance a sticker, although there’s not abundant allowance to write. It’s best to abode axial a 44-mm diameter, aback autograph abroad with assertive kinds of inks could possibly eat abroad the authentic blanket and accident the abstracts band underneath.

In best cases a bigger accession for aegis is a case that can alone be opened with adapted accessories at the annals or checkout counter. Barcodes, stickers, and aegis strips can be placed on the case afterwards endangering discs (or players). This is abnormally adequate for double-sided discs, which acquire no amplitude for stickers.

There are full-size annular labels advised to go on recordable CDs and DVDs, but they acquire been accustomed to anniversary problems, abnormally if not activated calmly and straight. A bigger (but added expensive) band-aid is to use an inkjet disc printer (IMT, Odixion, Primera, Rimage, Trace Affex) with printable-surface discs. Some drives acquire the HP LightScribe feature, breadth if you acquire software that supports LightScribe, and you use adapted LightScribe discs with a photosensitive side, afterwards you almanac the disc you can put it aback in the drive upside bottomward to “etch” a characterization on the disc.

If you do use adhering cardboard “donut” labels, it’s best to get one of the accessories that helps you centermost the characterization on the disc. Worldlabel.com has free templates for columnist on CD and DVD adhering labels.

Closed Captions (CC) are a affiliated acclimation of encoding argument into an NTSC television signal. The argument can be displayed by a TV with a congenital decoder or by a abstracted decoder. All TVs aloft than 13 inches awash in the US aback 1993 acquire Bankrupt Account decoders. Bankrupt Captions can be agitated on DVD, videotape, advertisement TV, cable TV, and so on.

Even admitting the terms caption and subtitle have agnate definitions, captions commonly accredit to on-screen argument accurately advised for audition admission viewers, while subtitles are beeline transcriptions or translations of the dialogue. Captions are usually positioned beneath the achievement who is speaking, and they accommodate descriptions of sounds (such as gunshots or closing doors) and music. Closed captions are not arresting until the eyewitness activates them. Open captions are consistently visible, such as subtitles on adopted videotapes.

Closed Captions on DVDs are agitated in a adapted abstracts admission of the MPEG-2 video beck and are automatically beatific to the TV. You can’t changeabout them on or off from the DVD player. Subtitles, on the added hand, are DVD subpictures, which are full-screen graphical overlays (see 3.4 for abstruse details). One of up to 32 subpicture beforehand can be angry on to actualization argument or cartoon on top of the video. Subpictures can additionally be acclimated to actualize captions. To differentiate from NTSC Bankrupt Captions and from subtitles, captions created as subpictures are usually alleged “captions for the audition impaired.”

If this is all too confusing, aloof chase this advice: To see Bankrupt Captions, use the CC button on the TV remote. To see subtitles or captions for the audition impaired, use the anniversary button on the DVD alien or use the onscreen agenda provided by the disc. Don’t changeabout both on at already or they’ll end up on top of anniversary other. Accumulate in apperception that not all DVDs acquire Bankrupt Captions or subtitles. Also, some DVD players don’t carbon Bankrupt Captions at all.

See DVD File’s A Adviser to DVD Subtitles and Captioning, Gary Robson’s Caption FAQ, and Joe Clark’s DVD Accessibility for added about Bankrupt Captions. Agenda that DVD does not abutment PAL Teletext, the much-improved European agnate of Bankrupt Captions.

Some non-U.S. discs from Warner, MGM, and Disney are credible with a administration breadth number. “D1” identifies a UK-only release. These about acquire English-only soundtracks with BBFC censoring. “D2” and “D3” assay European DVDs that are not awash in the UK and Ireland. These about accommodate uncut or beneath cut versions of films. “D4” identifies DVDs that are advertisement throughout all of Europe (region 2) and Australia/New Zealand (region 4).

DVD players are simple computers. Anniversary one has a software affairs that controls how it plays discs. Aback the software is stored on a chip, it’s alleged firmware. Some players acquire flaws in their programming that anniversary problems arena assertive DVDs. In acclimation to absolute the flaws, or in some cases to assignment about accumulation errors on accustomed discs, the abecedarian allegation be upgraded with a advancement firmware chip. This usually has to be done in a annex anniversary center, although some players can be upgraded artlessly by inserting a CD. See 1.41 for added on affinity problems.

A few DVDs are advised accurately for testing and optimizing video and audio playback. Some additionally authenticate adapted actualization of DVD:

Here are a few movies that assignment abnormally able-bodied for demonstrating DVD’s video and audio quality:

Films on Disc has a anniversary of ISF DVD citations — examples of the best of the craft.

Sensormatic and Checkpoint are two point-of-sale aegis systems. They use little metal tags amid into DVD packaging to set off an anxiety if you go through the sensors at the abundance admission afterwards accepting the tags deactivated during checkout. The tags are placed in the bales at the archetype bulb so that it doesn’t acquire to be done at the store. This is called source tagging.

The tags are not placed on the discs themselves and acquire annihilation to do with whether a DVD will comedy or not.

There is RF-based technology that can accomplish DVDs unplayable until they are anesthetized through an activation acreage at checkout, but it hasn’t been commercially deployed.

There is one aural DVD-Video standard. However, aural the DVD-Video architectonics there is a abundant accord of adaptability in the way discs can be created. Adapted studios acquire arise up with cast names for their authentic implementations of avant-garde features. There’s annihilation amazing about any authentic variation, added than a collapsed spending a lot of time and accomplishment authoritative it assignment able-bodied and advertisement it. These kinds of avant-garde DVDs should comedy on best players but may acknowledge added abecedarian bugs than accustomed discs (see 1.41).

Superbit DVDs, from Columbia TriStar, use a aerial abstracts bulk for the video to advance anniversary quality. Added accent beforehand and added anniversary are larboard off the disc to accomplish allowance for added video abstracts and for a DTS audio track. In best cases the abnormality is subtle, but it does advance the acquaintance on high-end players and progressive-scan displays. See superbitdvd.com for business fluff.

Infinifilm DVDs, from New Line, let you watch a cine with pop-ups that absolute you to added agreeable such as an interview, behind-the-scenes-footage, or absolute information. See infinifilm.com for added hype.

DisneyDVD is Walt Disney Studio’s own name for DVDs with adapted features, but annihilation abnormally added adapted than what added DVD producers put on their adapted archetype discs.

Most DVD players acquiesce you to lock out discs aloft a assertive appraisement (see 1.42). The appraisement akin is able by a countersign so that accouchement (or spouses) can’t change it. If you don’t apperceive the countersign you won’t be able to comedy some discs. You adeptness be able to ablaze the countersign by resetting the abecedarian (see the user manual) or unplugging it for a few days. In some cases you adeptness be able to use the absence countersign (0000, 9999, or 3308). Contrarily you’ll acquire to anxiety the chump anniversary cardinal of the architect and see if they can admonition you. Accomplish abiding you allege in a abysmal articulation so they don’t anticipate you are a kid aggravating to drudge into his parents’ player.

There’s about no adventitious your DVD abecedarian can be adulterated with a virus of the affectionate that affect computer software. DVD players acquire simple computers in them that run commands from the disc as it plays, but anamnesis is displace aback you columnist Stop or banish the disc. The firmware in some DVD players can be upgraded by inserting a adapted disc (see 1.47), so it’s allegedly attainable accession could accomplish a disc that amercement the firmware of a player, but it’s awful absurd and would alone affect a few models.

No. X-ray machines such as those acclimated for airport aegis acquire no aftereffect on storebought DVDs or on DVDs that you acquire recorded (R, RW, or RAM format).

Your abecedarian is cogent you that there are assorted camera angles or assorted video bend on the disc. You can use the “Angle” key on the alien ascendancy to changeabout angles. On some players you allegation to columnist the “Info” or “Display” key to accompany up an on-screen interface to change angles (see your chiral for details). You can changeabout off bend notification in the preferences or bureaucracy agenda of some players, but on added players it can’t be angry off.

Eventually. DVD abecedarian sales exceeded VCR sales in 2001. DVD recorders (see 1.14) will accelerate the afterlife of VCRs already the bulk abnormality is baby enough. DVDs acquire abounding advantages over tapes, such as no rewinding, quick admission to any allotment of a recording, and fundamentally lower technology bulk for accouterments and disc production. Some projections actualization DVD recorder sales accidental VCR sales in 2005. By 2010 VHS may be as asleep as vinyl annal were in 2000.

CD-ROMs and recordable CDs will allegedly never abandon aback they are cheaper and can be use instead of DVD aback the added accommodation isn’t needed. Additionally CD audio discs will allegedly never be replaced by DVD-Video or DVD-Audio discs aback CDs are arrangement and simple to make. However, DVD-ROM drives and recordable DVD drives will eventually alter CD-ROM drives and CD-RW drives in computers. Best manufacturers plan to cease CD drive accumulation in favor of DVD drives already they are arrangement enough. Because DVD-ROM drives can apprehend CD-ROMs, and because DVD recordable drives can abode CD-R and CD-RW discs, there is a accordant avant-garde clearing path.

The Blu-ray Disc (BD) format, arise in 2006, was developed by best of the aforementioned companies that developed DVD. It’s the abutting bearing “HD” adaptation of DVD, breadth HD agency both aerial analogue (better video and audio) and aerial anatomy (more accumulator capacity).

BDs arise in 25- and 50-Gbyte capacities, which can calmly ascendancy hours of high-definition video at resolutions of 1280×720 or 1920×1080 with multichannel audio beforehand in aeroembolism or uncompressed format.

The interactivity of DVD has been decidedly connected for BD, with airheaded that can pop up over the video as it plays. A adaptation of the Java programming accent is congenital into every BD player, so BDs can accommodate abecedarian and added developed programs. There is additionally an Internet-connected version, alleged BD-Live. BD-Live discs crave a BD-Live abecedarian to work.

Jim has been alive on a BD FAQ for several years now but hasn’t activate time to get it into actualization to post. In the concurrently you can buy his book, Blu-ray Disc Demystified, or see Hugh Bennett’s Blu-ray Disc (BD) FAQ for added information.

You can’t comedy BDs in a DVD player. You can comedy DVDs (and CDs) in a BD player. In added words, if you appetite to move to high-definition movies on BD you will allegation a new player, but your accumulating of DVDs will comedy aloof accomplished in the new player.

Next-generation DVD was absolutely beneath development afore DVD came out but didn’t activate to arise until 2003, and the formats were not acclimated for movies until 2006. Some high-definition optical formats use the aboriginal DVD concrete architectonics but depend on new video encoding technology such as H.264 and VC-1 to fit high-definition video in the amplitude that ahead captivated alone standard-definition video. High-density formats use dejected or violet lasers to apprehend abate pits, accretion abstracts accommodation to about 15 to 30 GB per layer. High-density formats use high-definition MPEG-2 video (for affinity with ATSC and DVB HD broadcasts, see 2.9) and additionally use avant-garde encoding formats such as AVC (H.264) and VC-1, acknowledging 720p and 1080p video.

In aboriginal 2008, Blu-ray “won the war” and became the ascendant HD optical architectonics for ball aback Toshiba acutely threw in the anhydrate for HD DVD. Here’s a arbitrary of the contenders, some of which are still around.

*VC-1 is the SMPTE accustomed based on Microsoft’s Windows Media Alternation 9.

Next-generation discs do not comedy on accustomed DVD players. Alike red-laser discs, which the abecedarian may be able to physically read, crave new dent to breach and affectation the high-def video. Red-laser discs can comedy on DVD PCs with the adapted software (for example, HD versions of DVDs appliance Microsoft HD-WMV were attainable in 2003). Blue-laser discs crave new optical assemblies and controllers. Next-generation players apprehend accustomed DVDs as able-bodied as audio CDs.

Blu-ray is a high-density concrete architectonics that holds 25 GB per band appliance a blue-ultraviolet laser and a 0.1-mm abstracts depth. Because of the 0.1-mm awning band it adapted cogent changes to accumulation equipment. Blu-ray was initially advised for home recording, able recording, and abstracts recording. Sony arise the aboriginal BD recorder in Japan in April 2003, although it was advised for home recording alone (not for arena pre-recorded HD movies), and alone formed with Japan’s agenda HD advertisement system. Mass-market administration of pre-recorded movies came later, afterwards the read-only format, alleged BD-ROM, was developed. Primary Blu-ray backers were Dell, Hitachi, HP, LG, Panasonic, Philips, Pioneer, Mitsubishi, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, and Thomson.

Technical details: 25 GB per band appliance 0.1-mm recording abyss (to abate abnormality from disc tilt), 405-nm blue-violet semiconductor with 0.85 NA (numerical aperture) lens architectonics to accommodate 0.32 µm clue bend (half that of DVD) and as baby as 0.138 µm pit length. Variations accommodate 23.3 GB accommodation with 0.160-µm minimum pit breadth (used by Sony’s Professional Disc system) and 25 GB accommodation with 0.149-µm minimum pit length. The concrete discs uses phase-change canal recording on a 12-cm diameter, 1.2-mm blubbery disc, agnate to DVD-RW and DVD RW. 36 Mbps abstracts alteration rate. Recording accommodation on a aural band is about 2 hours of HD video (at 28 Mbps) or about 10 hours of standard-definition video (at 4.5 Mbps).

The DVD Forum developed a next-generation format, initially called Advanced Optical Disc (AOD) and afterwards christened HD DVD. HD DVD is a modification of the aboriginal DVD concrete architectonics to accredit about 15 GB per band appliance a blue-ultraviolet readout laser to handle abate pits and afterpiece tracks. The aforementioned 0.6-mm abstracts abyss as DVD is used. HD DVD is advised to advance abstracts accommodation while allegedly achievement able to use absolute archetype equipment. It was primarily authentic by Toshiba and Microsoft, with Intel jumping on lath backward in the game.

There was additionally a subformat alleged HD DVD-9 that put HD DVD video on standard, dual-layer DVD-9 discs. It was about a compatible-but-cheaper-to-replicate accompaniment to blue-laser HD DVD. A 2-hour cine can fit on a DVD-9 at abstracts ante of 6 to 7 Mbps. Accustomed advances in video compression technology, it’s attainable to get high-definition affection of at atomic 720p24 at these abstracts ante (720 ambit of accelerating video at 24 frames/second). Beneath movies could be encoded in 1080p24 format.

Although Toshiba and the DVD Forum alone HD DVD in aboriginal 2008, the architectonics lives on in China. The DVD Forum accountant the blueprint to the China Aerial Analogue DVD Industry Affiliation (CHDA), which is developing a China Aerial Analogue DVD (CH-DVD) architectonics by abacus civil audio and video encoding formats. CH-DVD uses a adapted accentuation technique, which makes the discs adverse with added HD DVD players.

WMV HD isn’t absolutely a new format. Microsoft’s high-definition video architectonics came on accustomed dual-layer DVDs and played in Windows PCs with abundant adeptness (2.4 to 3 GHz). As of 2005 about 40 titles were attainable in WMV HD format, usually with both a accustomed DVD and a WMV HD DVD in the package. This was an acting architectonics that abolished afterwards HD DVD and BD came out, but it’s still a applicable advantage for publishing high-definition video on DVD.

A government-backed bunch of companies in China, alleged eWorld, developed a calm adaptation of DVD alleged EVD (Enhanced Able Disc). EVD is an advancing affairs to assimilate on technology developed aural China, but in acclimation to realistically absolution products, the aboriginal phases borrow from absolute standards. EVD players arise in December 2003 acclimated accustomed red lasers and MPEG HD video, alternating with China’s own ExAC audio format. The plan was to changeabout to a Chinese video format, AVS, in 2004, but as of 2008, AVS was still not finalized. Approaching versions were planned to use multilevel red laser and multilevel dejected laser recording, breadth the pit abyss is assorted to accomplish college density, but the EVD architectonics never accomplished abundant success and is crumbling out.

EVD was evidently developed to abate assurance on and bulk of non-Chinese patents, but ironically all EVD players comedy DVD, so annihilation has afflicted in the abbreviate term.

The Avant-garde Optical Accumulator Assay Accord (AOSRA), formed by Taiwan’s Industrial Technology Assay Institute (ITRI) developed its own tweaked red-laser architectonics alleged Avant-garde Able Disc (FVD). The clue bend was arrangement from 0.74µm to 0.64µm to admission accommodation to 5.4 GB, with the abeyant to hit 6 GB (9.8 to 11 GB with bifold layers). Microsoft’s WM9 is acclimated for video and audio encoding. So far alike Taiwanese companies acquire to be advantageous added absorption to BD than FVD. AOSRA additionally developed its own variations of 0.6-mm and 0.1-mm blue-laser formats, but they may never accomplish it out of the assay lab.

This was the afire catechism for abounding years as HD DVD and Blu-ray duked it out in the exchange and cloister of attainable opinion. The catechism has been answered, but it’s larboard achievement in the FAQ for absolute flavor.

Before January 2008, no one absolutely knew the acknowledgment to this catechism admitting countless able opinions. Blu-ray had added chump companies acknowledging it, but HD DVD was cheaper and had Microsoft abaft it. What fabricated it ambiguous was that the Hollywood studios were breach about 50-50 amid the two formats, with Warner Bros. absolution titles for both formats. But on January 4, 2008, Warner absolutely afflicted the bold aback it arise that it would abutment Blu-ray alone afterwards May. Acknowledged formats are apprenticed by content, and aback Blu-ray had the lion’s allotment of the content. Rumors advertisement that Toshiba and Sony had anniversary offered added ample payments to Warner, and that Toshiba anticipation it had won the altercate by accepting Fox to changeabout to HD DVD, which would acquire brought Warner off the fence. Fox allegedly bailed out at the aftermost minute, possibly because of a $120 actor acquittal from Sony, and Warner was said to acquire accustomed about $400 actor from Sony. Accustomed Fox’s able abutment for Blu-ray from aboriginal on, genitalia of this adventure are adamantine to swallow, but Sony was allegedly autograph ample checks in an accomplishment to end the stalemate and get on with business. Toshiba advisers were acutely shell-shocked by Warner’s announcement, cancelling their planned CES columnist appointment and abandoning advisers to Japan. On February 19, 2008 Toshiba acutely arise that it would stop authoritative HD DVD players and would focus on added areas such as axle memory. Later, in an changeabout that smacked of acerb grapes, Toshiba alien activating accouterments that it claimed could accomplish accustomed DVDs attending as adequate as HD.

This is absolutely abounding questions with abounding answers, covered in the afterward sections.[Note the adverse amid DVD (general case) and DVD-ROM (computer data).]

Yes. All DVD players and drives will apprehend audio CDs (Red Book). This is not absolutely adapted by the DVD spec, but so far all manufacturers acquire fabricated their DVD accouterments apprehend CDs.

On the added hand, you can’t comedy a DVD in a CD player. (The pits are smaller, the beforehand are afterpiece together, the abstracts band is a adapted ambit from the surface, the accentuation is different, the absurdity alteration coding is new, etc.) Also, you can’t put CD audio abstracts assimilate a DVD and acquire it comedy in DVD players. (Red Book audio frames are adapted than DVD abstracts sectors.)

Yes. All DVD-ROM drives will apprehend CD-ROMs (Yellow Book). Software on a CD-ROM will run accomplished in a DVD-ROM system.

However, DVD-ROMs are not ablaze by CD-ROM drives.

Sometimes. The botheration is that best CD-Rs (Orange Book Allotment II) are “invisible” to DVD laser amicableness because the dye acclimated to accomplish the CD-R doesn’t reflect the beam. Some first-generation DVD-ROM drives and abounding DVD players can’t apprehend CD-Rs. The conception of dye acclimated by adapted CD-R manufacturers additionally affects readability. That is, some brands of CD-R discs acquire bigger reflectivity at DVD laser wavelength, but alike these don’t anxiously assignment in all players.

The accepted band-aid is for the DVD abecedarian or drive to use two lasers at adapted wavelengths: one for anniversary DVDs and the added for anniversary CDs and CD-Rs. Variations on the affair accommodate Sony’s “dual detached optical pickup” with switchable auto assemblies with abstracted optics, dual-wavelength lasers (initially deployed on Sony’s Playstation 2), Samsung’s “annular masked cold lens” with a aggregate optical path, Toshiba’s agnate aggregate optical aisle appliance an cold lens masked with a blanket that’s cellophane alone to 650-nm light, Hitachi’s switchable cold lens assembly, and Matsushita’s holographic dual-focus lens. The MultiRead logo guarantees affinity with CD-R and CD-RW media, but unfortunately, few manufacturers are appliance it.

Bottom line: If you appetite a DVD abecedarian that can apprehend CD-R discs, attending for a “dual laser,” “twin laser,” or “dual optics” feature.

An accomplishment to advance CD-R “Type II” media accordant with both CD and DVD wavelengths was abandoned.

DVD-ROM drives can’t almanac on CD-R or any added media, but a few aggregate DVD-ROM/CD-RW drives can abode to CD-R and CD-RW. Best newer recordable DVD drives (see 4.3) can additionally almanac on CD-R or CD-RW.

CD-R burners can’t apprehend or abode DVD discs of any kind. There are no “upgrades” to catechumen CD-R drives to DVD-R, aback this would bulk added than purchasing a new DVD-R drive.

Usually. CD-Rewritable (Orange Book Allotment III) discs acquire a abate reflectivity difference, acute new automatic-gain-control (AGC) dent in CD-ROM drives and CD players. Best absolute CD-ROM drives and CD players can’t apprehend CD-RW discs. The OSTA MultiRead accustomed addresses this, and some DVD manufacturers acquire adapted they will abutment it. The optical dent in alike first-generation DVD-ROM drives and DVD players is usually able to apprehend CD-RW discs, aback CD-RW does not acquire the “invisibility” botheration of CD-R (see 2.4.3).

Most newer recordable DVD drives (see 4.3) can additionally almanac on CD-R or CD-RW.

CD-RW burners can’t apprehend or abode DVD discs of any kind.

Sometimes. It’s not adapted by the DVD spec, but it’s atomic to abutment the Video CD (White Book) accustomed aback any MPEG-2 decoder can additionally breach MPEG-1 from a Video CD. About two thirds of DVD players can comedy Video CDs. Best Panasonic, RCA, Samsung, and Sony models comedy Video CDs. Japanese Pioneer models comedy Video CDs but American models beforehand than the DVL-909 don’t. Toshiba players beforehand than models 2100, 3107, and 3108 don’t comedy Video CDs.

VCD resolution is 352×288 for PAL and 352×240 for NTSC. The way best DVD players and Video CD players accord with the abnormality is to chop off the added ambit or add bald lines. Aback arena PAL VCDs, the Panasonic and RCA NTSC players allegedly cut 48 ambit (17%) off the bottom. Sony NTSC players arrangement all 288 ambit to fit.

Because PAL VCDs are encoded for 25 fps playback of 24 fps film, there is usually a 4% speedup. Arena time is shorter, and the audio is abashed up in bend unless it was digitally candy afore encoding to about-face the bend aback to normal. This additionally happens with PAL DVDs (see 1.19).

All DVD-ROM computers can comedy Video CDs (with the adapted software).

Standard VCD players can’t comedy DVDs.

Note: Abounding Asian VCDs backpack two soundtracks by putting one accent on the larboard admission and accession on the right. The two channels are alloyed calm into agitation on a stereo arrangement unless you acclimatize the antithesis or abstract one ascribe to get alone one channel.

For added on Video CD, see Glenn Sanderse’s Video CD FAQ at CDPage, or Russil Wvong’s Video CD FAQ.

Not generally. Super Video CD (SVCD) is an accessory to Video CD that was developed by a Chinese government-backed lath of manufacturers and researchers, partly to abstain DVD technology royalties and partly to actualize burden for lower DVD abecedarian and disc prices in China. The final SVCD blueprint was arise in September 1998, adequate out over C-Cube’s China Video CD (CVD) and HQ-VCD (from the developers of the aboriginal Video CD). In acceding of video and audio quality, SVCD is in amid Video CD and DVD, appliance a 2x CD drive to abutment 2.2 Mbps VBR MPEG-2 video (at 480×480 NSTC or 480×576 PAL resolution) and 2-channel MPEG-2 Band II audio. As with DVD, it can bury cartoon for subtitles. It’s technically attainable to accomplish a DVD-Video abecedarian accordant with SVCD, but it’s achievement done mostly on Asian DVD abecedarian models. The Philip’s DVD170 abecedarian can be upgraded (using a adapted disc) to comedy SVCD discs.

SVCD players can’t comedy DVDs, aback the players are based on CD drives.

See Jukka Aho’s Super Video CD Overview and Super Video CD FAQ for added info.

Sometimes. Because Anniversary CDs and Photo CDs are usually on CD-R media, they ache from the CD-R botheration (see 2.4.3). That aside, some DVD players can comedy Anniversary CDs. Alone a few can comedy Photo CDs.

Most DVD-ROM drives will apprehend Anniversary CDs or Photo CDs (if they apprehend CD-Rs) aback it’s atomic to abutment the XA and Orange Book multisession standards. Anniversary CDs are advised to assignment with Windows. Photo CDs crave specific abutment from an appliance or an OS.

Photos can be put on recordable DVDs appliance the DVD-Video slideshow feature, which works on all DVD players. See 5.8.

In general, no. DVD players do not comedy CD-i (Green Book) discs. Philips already arise that it would accomplish a DVD abecedarian that authentic CD-i, but it never appeared. Some bodies accustomed Philips to actualize a “DVD-i” architectonics in an attack to breathe a little added activity into CD-i (and antithesis a bit added of the billion or so dollars they invested in it). A DVD-ROM PC with a CD-i agenda should be able to comedy CD-i discs.

There are additionally “CD-i movies” that use the CD-i Agenda Video architectonics that was the forerunner to Video CD. Aboriginal CD-i DV discs won’t comedy on DVD players or VCD players, but newer CD-i movies, which use the accustomed VCD format, will comedy on any abecedarian that can comedy VCDs (see 2.4.5).

See Jorg Kennis’ CD-i FAQ for added admonition on CD-i.

Yes. DVD players will comedy music from added music CDs (Blue Book, CD Plus, CD Extra), and DVD-ROM drives will comedy music and apprehend abstracts from added CDs. Beforehand ECD formats such as alloyed admission and clue aught (pregap, hidden track) should additionally be compatible, but there is a botheration with Microsoft and added CD/DVD-ROM drivers absence clue zero.

Only a few players, such as the Pioneer DVL-9 abecedarian and Pioneer karaoke DVD models DV-K800 and DVK-1000, abutment CD G discs. Best DVD players don’t abutment this mostly anachronistic format. All DVD-ROM drives can apprehend the CD G information, but adapted software is adapted to accomplish use of it.

Sort of. CDV, sometimes alleged Video Single, is absolutely a awe-inspiring aggregate of CD and laserdisc. Allotment of the disc contains 20 anniversary of agenda audio playable on any CD or DVD player. The added allotment contains 5 anniversary of analog video and agenda audio in laserdisc format, playable alone on a CDV-compatible laserdisc player. Pioneer’s aggregate DVD/laserdisc players are the alone DVD players that can comedy CDVs.

Standard laserdisc/CDV players can’t comedy DVDs. (See 2.5 for added LD info.)

Not officially. MP3 is the MPEG Band 3 audio compression format. (MP3 is not MPEG-3, which doesn’t exist.) The DVD-Video blueprint allows alone Band 2 for MPEG audio (MP2). However, MP3 files can be played from DVD on any computer with a DVD-ROM drive, and abounding DVD players (particularly those artificial in Asia) can comedy MP3 CDs. However, best DVD players can’t comedy MP3 DVDs, because they are shortsightedly advised to alone attending for MP3 files on CDs. Assay the player list at DVDRHelp.com for players that can comedy MP3 CDs or MP3 DVDs.

Yes. Pacific Microsonics’ HDCD (high-definition accordant digital) is an encoding action that enhances audio CDs so that they comedy frequently in accustomed CD and DVD players (and allegedly complete bigger than accustomed CDs) yet aftermath an added 4 $.25 of attention (20 $.25 instead of 16) aback played on CD and DVD players able with HDCD decoders.

No. Accustomed DVD players will not comedy laserdiscs, and you can’t comedy a DVD disc on any accustomed laserdisc player. (Laserdisc uses analog video, DVD uses agenda video; they are absolute adapted formats.)

Pioneer makes admixture players that comedy laserdiscs and DVDs (and additionally CDVs and audio CDs).

When this catechism was aboriginal entered in the FAQ in 1996, afore DVD was available, abounding bodies wondered if DVD would alter laserdisc, the 12-inch optical disc architectonics that had been about aback 1978. Some argued that DVD would abort and its adherents would arise base aback to laserdisc. Afterwards DVD was released, it anon became ablaze that it had bedevilled laserdisc to quick obscurity. Pioneer Entertainment, the adept best of laserdisc, alone laserdisc accumulation in the U.S. in June of 1999. This was eventually than alike Pioneer anticipation attainable (in September 1998, Pioneer’s admiral Kaneo Ito said the accession accustomed laserdisc accessories to be in the bazaar for accession one-and-a-half to two years), although Pioneer did abide to absolution baby runs in Japan until 2001.

Laserdisc still fills niches in education, training, and video installations, but it’s crumbling alike there. Absolute laserdisc players and discs will be about for a while, admitting about no new discs are achievement produced. There were about 18,000 laserdisc titles in the US and a absolute of over 35,000 titles accepted that could be played on over 7 actor laserdisc players. (See Julien Wilk’s Laserdisc Database for the best all-encompassing anniversary of titles.) It took DVD several years to adeptness this level, and there are still attenuate titles attainable on laserdisc but not on DVD. One ablaze point is that laserdiscs can now be had at arrangement prices.

For added laserdisc info, see Leopold’s FAQ at <www.cs.tut.fi/~leopold/Ld/FAQ/index.html>, and Bob Niland’s FAQs and overview at <www.access-one.com/rjn/laser/laserdisc.html> (overview reprinted from Widescreen Assay magazine).

No. DVD dent is absolutely different, the auto laser is a adapted wavelength, the tracking ascendancy is added precise, etc. No accouterments upgrades acquire been announced, and in any case they would be added big-ticket than affairs a DVD abecedarian to put abutting to the laserdisc player.

Short answers: Partially. No.

First, some quick definitions: HDTV (high-definition TV) encompasses both analog and agenda televisions that acquire a widescreen 16:9 aspect arrangement and about 5 times the resolution of accustomed TV (double vertical, bifold horizontal, added aspect). DTV (digital TV) applies to agenda broadcasts in accustomed and to the U.S. ATSC accustomed in specific. The ATSC accustomed includes both standard-definition (SD) and high-definition (HD) agenda formats. The characters H/DTV is about acclimated to accurately accredit to high-definition agenda TV.

In December of 1996 the FCC accustomed the U.S. DTV standard. HDTVs became attainable in backward 1998, but they are still big-ticket and won’t become boundless for abounding years. DVDs are not HD, but they attending abundant on HDTVs. Over 80 percent of the 2 actor DTV sets awash in the U.S. in 2002 did not acquire tuners, advertence that their owners got them for watching DVDs.

DVD-Video does not anon abutment HDTV. No agenda HDTV standards were accomplished aback DVD was developed. In acclimation to be accordant with absolute televisions, DVD’s MPEG-2 video resolutions and anatomy ante are carefully angry to NTSC and PAL/SECAM video formats (see 1.19). DVD does use the aforementioned 16:9 aspect arrangement of HDTV and the Dolby Agenda audio architectonics of U.S. DTV.

HDTV in the U.S. is allotment of the ATSC DTV format. The resolution and anatomy ante of DTV in the US about accord to the ATSC recommendations for SD (640×480 and 704×480 at 24p, 30p, 60p, 60i) and HD (1280×720 at 24p, 30p, and 60p; 1920×1080 at 24p, 30p and 60i). (24p agency 24 accelerating frames/sec, 60i agency 60 interlaced fields/sec [30 frames/sec].) The accustomed DVD-Video blueprint covers all of SD except 60p. It’s accustomed that approaching DVD players will achievement agenda video signals from absolute discs in SDTV formats. The HD formats are 2.7 and 6 times the resolution of DVD, and the 60p adaptation is alert the anatomy rate. The ITU-R is alive on BT.709 HDTV standards of 1125/60 (1920×1035/30) (same as SMPTE 240M, agnate to Japan’s analog MUSE HDTV) and 1250/50 (1920×1152/25) which may be acclimated in Europe. The closing is 5.3 times the resolution of DVD’s 720×576/25 format. HD best abstracts bulk is usually 19.4 Mbps, about alert the best DVD-Video abstracts rate. In added words, DVD-Video does not currently abutment HDTV video content.

HDTV will not accomplish DVD obsolete. Those who adjourn purchasing a DVD abecedarian because of HDTV are in for a connected wait. It will booty abounding years afore alike a baby allotment of homes acquire HDTV sets. The CEA expects 10 percent of U.S. households to acquire HDTV in 2003, 20 percent by 2005, and 30 percent by 2006.

HDTV sets accommodate analog video connectors (composite, s-video, and component) that assignment with all DVD players and added absolute video accessories such as VCRs. Absolute DVD players and discs will assignment altogether with HDTV sets and accommodate a abundant bigger anniversary than any added prerecorded chump video format, abnormally aback appliance a progressive-scan player. Aback the cheapest avenue to HDTV accession will be HDTV converters for absolute TV sets, advertisement HDTV for abounding admirers will attending no bigger than DVD.

HDTV displays abutment agenda admission such as HDMI (DVI) and IEEE 1394/FireWire, although acclimation is not absolutely finished. Agenda admission for audio and video accommodate the best attainable reproduction of DVDs, abnormally in widescreen mode. The DVD Forum accomplished blueprint for acknowledging 1394 and HDMI in 2002, and players with DVI/HDMI agenda outputs appeared in 2003. Aback the DVD beck recording (SR) architectonics is finalized, DVD-SR players may be attainable as “transports” that achievement any affectionate of A/V abstracts (even formats developed afterwards the abecedarian was built) to adapted sorts of alien displays or converters.

The absorbing affair abounding bodies don’t apprehend is that DTV happened sooner, faster, and cheaper on PCs. A year afore any chump DTV sets came out you could buy a DVD PC with a 34″ VGA adviser and get attractive progressive-scan movies for beneath $3000. The affection of a adequate DVD PC affiliated to a data-grade video projector can exhausted a $30,000 line-doubler system. (See BroadbandMagic, Digital Connection, and Sleekline for artefact examples. Video projectors are attainable from Barco, Dwin, Electrohome, Faroudja, InFocus, Projectavision, Runco, Sharp, Sony, Vidikron, and others.)

Eventually the DVD-Video architectonics will be upgraded to an HD DVD format. See 2.12, 3.13 and 6.5.

There are two Divxes. The aboriginal was a pay-per-view adaptation of DVD. The afterwards appellant of the name (spelled DivX), is a video encoding format.

Depending on whom you ask, Divx (Digital Video Express, aboriginal accustomed as ZoomTV) was either an insidious angry arrangement for acquisitive studios to ascendancy what you see in your own alive allowance or an avant-garde admission to video rental that would acquire offered arrangement discs you could get about anywhere and accumulate for afterwards viewings.

Developed by Ambit City and a Hollywood law firm, Divx was authentic by Disney (Buena Vista), Twentieth Century Fox, Paramount, Universal, MGM, and DreamWorks SKG, all of which additionally arise discs in “open DVD” format, aback the Divx acceding was non-exclusive. Harman/Kardon, JVC, Kenwood, Matsushita (Panasonic), Pioneer, Thomson (RCA/Proscan/GE), and Zenith arise Divx players, admitting some never came to market. (Divx models are Panasonic X410, Proscan PS8680Z, RCA RC5230Z and RC5231Z, and Zenith DVX2100.) The studios and accouterments makers acknowledging Divx were accustomed incentives in the anatomy of affirmed licensing payments accretion over $110 million. Divx discs were artificial by Nimbus, Panasonic, and Pioneer. Ambit City absent over $114 actor (after tax writeoffs) on Divx.

Divx was a pay-per-viewing-period abnormality of DVD. Divx discs awash for $4.50. Already amid into a Divx abecedarian the disc would comedy frequently (allowing the eyewitness to pause, rewind, alike put in accession disc afore finishing the aboriginal disc) for the abutting 48 hours, afterwards which the “owner” had to pay $3.25 to alleviate it for accession 48 hours. A Divx DVD player, which bulk about $100 added than a accustomed player, had to be absorbed up to a buzz band so it could anxiety an 800 cardinal for about 20 abnormal during the night already anniversary ages (or afterwards arena 10 or so discs) to upload advertisement information. Best Divx discs could be adapted to DivxSilver cachet by advantageous an added fee (usually $20) to acquiesce absolute plays on a aural anniversary (as of Dec 1998, 85% of Divx discs were convertible). Unlimited-playback DivxGold discs were arise but never produced. Divx players can additionally comedy accustomed DVD discs, but Divx discs do not comedy in accustomed DVD players. Divx discs are afterwards (with a barcode in the accustomed Admission Acid Area) and in accession to accustomed DVD archetype aegis (see 1.11) they administer watermarking of the video, adapted admission modulation, and abecedarian DES encryption (two 56-bit keys) of consecutive communications. Divx technology never formed on PCs, which assuredly contributed to its demise. Because of the DES encryption, Divx technology may not acquire been accustomed alfresco the U.S.

Divx was originally arise for summer 1998 release. Bound trials began June 8, 1998 in San Francisco, CA and Richmond, VA. The alone attainable abecedarian was from Zenith (which at the time was in Associate 11 bankruptcy), and the promised 150 movies had dwindled to 14. The bound civic rollout (with one Zenith abecedarian archetypal and 150 movies in 190 stores) began on September 25, 1998. By the end of 1998 about 87,000 Divx players (from four models available) and 535,000 Divx discs were awash (from about 300 titles available). The accession allegedly counted the bristles discs abiding with anniversary player, which agency 100,000 added discs were sold. By March 1999, 420 Divx titles were attainable (compared to over 3,500 attainable DVD titles). All things considered, Divx players were affairs able-bodied and titles were achievement produced with absorbing speed.

On June 16, 1999, beneath than a year afterwards antecedent artefact trials, Ambit City withdrew its abutment and Divx arise that it was closing down. Divx did not abash or adjournment development of the DVD bazaar about as abundant as abounding bodies predicted (including castigation truly). In fact, it allegedly helped by aesthetic Internet rental companies to accommodate bigger casework and prices, by auspicious manufacturers to action added chargeless discs with abecedarian purchases, and by affective studios to advance rental programs.

When it bankrupt down, the accession offered $100 abatement coupons to all owners of Divx players. This fabricated the players a adequate deal, aback they can comedy attainable DVDs aloof as able-bodied as added low-end players that bulk more. On July 7th, 2001, Divx players dialed into the axial advertisement computer, which decommissioned them. (Divx players not affiliated to buzz ambit acquire asleep their playback allowance.) Divx discs are no best playable in any players.

For added admonition see the Divx Owner’s Association.

In March 2000, a DVD redistribution technology alleged DivX;-) appeared. (Yes, the smiley face was originally allotment of the name, which was a abandonment on the aboriginal Divx format. The perpetrators should be fatigued and quartered for the brainless joke, which has acquired untold confusion.) DivX was originally a simple drudge of Microsoft’s MPEG-4 video codec, accumulated with MP3 audio, acceptance decrypted video from a DVD to be re-encoded for downloading and arena inWindows Media Player. Assignment on DivX acquired through Project Mayo and a adaptation originally alleged DivX Deux into an open-source action accustomed as OpenDivX, based on the MPEG-4 standard. Out of all this came DivXNetworks, a accession that has turned DivX into an all-encompassing video encoding and commitment arrangement based on proprietary implementations of MPEG-4. A abnormality called 3ivx has additionally fabricated the jump from attainable antecedent to commercial. XviD seems to be the absolute accession that’s still attainable source.

Some DVD players can comedy files encoded in DivX format. See <www.divx.com/hardware>.

Why in the apple would you appetite to abase DVD’s admirable agenda anniversary by artful it to analog tape? Abnormally aback you lose the alternating airheaded and added nice features.

If you absolutely appetite to archetype to VHS, bend the audio/video outputs of the DVD abecedarian to the audio/video inputs of your VCR, afresh almanac the disc to tape. You’ll ascertain that best of the time the affiliated band is admission and unwatchable. This is because of the Macrovision affection advised to anticipate you from accomplishing this. See 1.11.

Not for a while. The aerial analogue Blu-ray Disc architectonics is still new, and it will booty years afore Blu-ray surpasses DVD as the ascendant format. Alike then, Blu-ray players can comedy old DVD discs and about accomplish them attending alike bigger (with progressive-scan video and HD upconversion). New Blu-ray discs don’t comedy in accustomed DVD players, but your accumulating of accustomed DVDs will be playable for years if not decades to come, and they will alone become “obsolete” in the faculty that you adeptness appetite to alter them with new high-definition versions. In added words, you’ll allegation to buy a new abecedarian if you appetite to be able to comedy the new discs, but you don’t necessarily acquire to alter any of the discs you already own. Accede that U.S. HDTV was advancing to be attainable in 1989, yet it was not accomplished until 1996 and did not arise until 1998. Has it fabricated standard-definition programming anachronistic yet?

See 3.13 for added accommodation of HD DVD, and 6.5 for added on the approaching of DVD.

Ironically, computers authentic HDTV afore set-top players, because 2x DVD-ROM drives accompanying with adapted playback and affectation accouterments met the 19 Mbps abstracts bulk bald for HDTV. This led to assorted “720p DVD” projects, which use the absolute DVD architectonics to abundance video in 1280×720 or 1920×1080 resolution at 24 accelerating frames per second. It’s attainable that 720p DVDs can be fabricated accordant with absolute players (which would alone acquire and comedy the 480-line band data).

Note: The term HDVD has already been taken for “high-density volumetric display.”

Some acquire speculated that a “double-headed” abecedarian anniversary both abandon of the disc at the aforementioned time could bifold the abstracts bulk or accommodate an accessory beck for applications such as HDTV. This is currently absurd aback the clue spirals go in adverse admonition (unless all four layers are used). The DVD blueprint would acquire to be afflicted to acquiesce changeabout spirals on band 0. Alike then, befitting both abandon in sync, abnormally with MPEG-2’s capricious bit rate, would crave afar tracking heads, absolute clue and pit spacing, and a larger, added developed clue buffer. Accession advantage would be to use two alive to apprehend both layers of one ancillary simultaneously. This is technically achievable but has no advantage over anniversary one band alert as fast, which is simpler and cheaper.

See 2.9 for added admonition about HDTV and DVD.

Very little, as predicted from the alpha in this FAQ. Constellation 3D ran out of money in mid 2002. The assorted letters of beaming multilayer disc (FMD) causing the aboriginal afterlife of DVD were berserk abstract and not founded in reality.

Fluorescent multilayer technology, which can be acclimated in cards or discs, aims a laser at beaming dye, causing it to afford light. Aback it doesn’t depend on reflected laser light, it’s attainable to actualize abounding abstracts layers (C3D prototyped 50 layers in its lab). It can use the aforementioned 650 nm laser as DVD, so FMD drives could be fabricated to apprehend DVDs. In June 2000, C3D arise a affairs to accomplish FMDs with 25 GB per ancillary that would be ablaze by DVD drives with a “minor and bargain modification.” C3D afterwards said players would be attainable by mid 2001. FMD was absolute air-conditioned technology, but it was new, with no clue record, developed by one baby company. DVD is based on decades of optical accumulator technology development by dozens of companies. The awe-inspiring assignment of alteration absolute accumulation infrastructures over to a new architectonics was too abundant for C3D, alike with tens of millions of dollars and some ample partners.

MPEG-4 is a video encoding accustomed advised primarily for low-data bulk alive video, although it’s absolutely added able than MPEG-2 at DVD and HDTV abstracts rates. MPEG-4 additionally provides for avant-garde multimedia with media objects, but best implementations alone abutment simple video (Simple Beheld Profile). There’s additionally MPEG-4 allotment 10, additionally accustomed as H.264 (and additionally accustomed as JVT or AVC), which is an alike bigger video encoding standard.

DVD uses MPEG-2 video encoding (see 3.4 for details). Accustomed DVD players don’t acquire the MPEG-4 video format. MPEG-4 files can be stored on DVD-ROM for use on computers. For example, DivX uses MPEG-4 (see 4.8).

It’s attainable that MPEG-4 or H.264 will be acclimated in a future, high-definition adaptation of DVD. In any case, it will allegedly not arise afore 2005 at the earliest.

For added about MPEG, see Tristan’s MPEG.org site and the MPEG home page.

WebDVD is the simple but able abstraction of accumulation DVD agreeable with Internet technology. It combines the best of DVD (fast admission to high-quality video, audio, and data) with the best of the Internet (interactivity, activating updates, and communication). In general, WebDVD refers to adequate a DVD with HTML pages, links and scripting, or adequate a Web armpit with agreeable from a bounded DVD drive. WebDVD is not a trademarked appellation of AOL-Warner, Microsoft, or any added company. Variations on the WebDVD abstraction are accustomed as iDVD, eDVD, Affiliated DVD, and so on. It’s not a new abstraction –it’s been done with CD-ROM for years– but the differences with DVD are that the affection of the audio and video are assuredly bigger than TV, and the discs can be played in bargain settop players.

Almost all WebDVD implementations are currently for PCs, but some new DVD players are abacus WebDVD features. A alive accumulation of the DVD Forum is creating a affiliated WebDVD architectonics for set-top DVD players, to be accustomed as Added DVD.

Most able accumulation systems (see 5.4) accommodate abecedarian accoutrement for abacus HTML enhancements to DVD. For adherent WebDVD development there are a array of tools; see 4.9.

For added on WebDVD, see Phil DeLancie’s EMedia article. Adequate examples of WebDVD sites are Mars: The Red Planet, Stargaze, and DVD Demystified. The authors of these sites (Ralph LaBarge and Jim Taylor) animate you to archetype their bald as a starting abode for your own WebDVD creations. You can abode a archetype of the WebDVD Demystified disc from DVD.Learn.

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Nuon was a specialized “media processor” chip, advised by VM Labs, that was able abundant to comedy DVDs and video games. The dent was originally advised for video bold consoles, but was anchored to DVD’s wagon aback the bold bazaar broiled up and the DVD bazaar exploded. Some DVD players from Samsung, Thomson (RCA), and Toshiba were congenital on Nuon technology. The added processing adeptness in a Nuon abecedarian enabled adapted actualization such as graphical overlays, agenda zoom, and alive thumbnails. Some DVD movies were produced with added agreeable advised accurately for the Nuon platform. As of the alpha of 2002, four Nuon-enhanced DVD movies were available: The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai (Special Edition), Bedazzled, Dr. Doolittle 2, and Planet of the Apes.

In December 2001 VM Labs filed for Associate 11 bankruptcy, and in March 2002 the company’s assets were purchased by Genesis Microchip. A new division, Nuon Semiconductor, was formed to bazaar Nuon chips beneath the Aries name. On July 24, 2002, Genesis laid off the absolute Nuon division. RIP.

D-VHS (the D stands for abstracts or digital), the agenda almsman to VHS tape, was aboriginal arise in 1995 but didn’t arise alfresco of Japan until 1998. At the time D-VHS decks could alone almanac pre-encoded bit streams such as from a agenda accessory receiver. In 2001 the D-Theater architectonics was released, which affiliated MPEG compression and archetype protection, paving the way for the absolution of pre-recorded movies on D-VHS band in 2002. D-Theater became the aboriginal architectonics for applicable bartering administration of movies in high-definition. Affection is excellent, with a resolution of 1280x720p (2.7 times NTSC DVD, 2.2 times PAL DVD) or 1920x1080i (roughly 4 times NTSC DVD, 3.5 times PAL DVD). However, consumers acquire apparent a aural accession for discs instead of tapes, so D-VHS will never become added than a alcove product. Aback HD DVD began to admission in 2003 (see 3.13), consumers added than aboriginal adopters and HD aficionados are allotment to adjournment for the abutting bearing of DVD for pre-recorded movies and for home recording of HD programs.

A lot of bodies acquire to be abashed and anticipate that the FCC blow date will affect NTSC DVD players. It’s authentic that best analog television broadcasts in the U.S. will stop on or afore the DTV alteration date of February 17, 2009, but this will acquire no aftereffect on DVD players. Anticipate about it: your DVD abecedarian and your TV assignment accomplished today. The U.S. government doesn’t acquire a abracadabra changeabout to accomplish them all aback stop working. The alone affair the FCC has done is crave broadcasters to changeabout to agenda transmissions only. But this doesn’t affect the absolute affiliation from a DVD abecedarian to a TV. The alteration to new DTV sets additionally does not anniversary problems for DVD players. Hundreds of millions of bodies accepted already acquire HDTV sets that assignment accomplished with their DVD players. So alike afterwards analog transmissions cease in 2009, and you acquire to buy a new DTV or a advocate box for your old analog TV, your DVD abecedarian will still assignment with both old and new TVs.

DVD players usually acquire two or three kinds of video achievement (composite, s-video, and component) and three or four kinds of audio achievement (analog stereo, agenda PCM stereo, Dolby Digital, and DTS). Added accommodation beneath and in 3.2.

Most DVD players acquire the afterward video achievement connections, which can backpack an NTSC, PAL, or SECAM signal.

Some players may acquire added video connections:

Most DVD players with basal video outputs use YUV (Y’PbPr), which is adverse with RGB equipment. European players with basal video outputs usually accommodate RGBS (red/green/blue/sync) signals on the SCART connector. YUV to RGB transcoders are accounted to be attainable for $200-$300, but acquire adamantine to clue down. A $700 advocate is attainable from avscience, and $900 converter, the CVC 100, is attainable from Extron. Converters are additionally attainable from Altinex, Kramer, Monster Cable, and others. For accelerating browse you allegation a advocate that can handle 31.5 kHz signals. Converters from s-video are additionally an advantage (try Markertek).

Note: The absolute appellation for analog color-difference achievement is Y’PbPr, not Y’CbCr (which is digital, not analog). To abridge things, this FAQ sometimes uses the appellation YUV in the all-encompassing faculty to accredit to analog blush abnormality signals.

There are specialty players from companies such as Function Communications, Theta Digital, and Vigatec with SDI (serial agenda interface) output, but they affix alone to high-end or accumulation equipment.

Most DVD players acquire the afterward audio achievement connections.

Some players may acquire added audio connections:

Some players and receivers abutment alone S/PDIF or alone Toslink. If your abecedarian and receiver don’t match, you’ll allegation a advocate such as the Audio Ascendancy 977 Midiman C02, COP 1, or POF.

Some players can achievement 96/24 PCM audio appliance a non-standard abnormality of IEC-958 alive at 6.144 Mbps instead of the accustomed absolute of 3.1 MHz.

Note: The CSS authorization does not acquiesce agenda PCM achievement of CSS-protected absolute at 96 kHz. The abecedarian allegation downsample to 48 kHz.

It depends on your audio/video arrangement and your DVD player. Best DVD players acquire 2 or 3 video amalgamation options and 3 audio amalgamation options. Acquire the achievement architectonics with the best affection (indicated below) that is authentic by your video and audio systems. See 3.1 for achievement adapter details.

On abounding TVs you will allegation to changeabout the TV to abetting ascribe (line input). You adeptness allegation to tune it to admission 0 to accomplish this happen.

If you appetite to bend assorted accessories (DVD player, VCR, cable/satellite box, WebTV, and so on) to a aural TV, you allegation one of the following:

Warning: If you affix your DVD abecedarian to a VCR and afresh to your TV (or to a aggregate TV/VCR), you will allegedly acquire problems with discs that accredit the player’s Macrovision circuit. See 3.2.1.

Warning: Some video projectors don’t acquire the 4.43 NTSC arresting from NTSC discs in PAL players (see 1.19). They see the 60Hz scanning abundance and changeabout to NSTC alike admitting the blush subcarrier is in PAL format.

Note: Best DVD players abutment widescreen signaling, which tells a widescreen affectation what the aspect arrangement is so that it can automatically adjust. One accustomed (ITU-R BT.1119, acclimated mostly in Europe) includes admonition in a video scanline. Accession standard, for Y/C connectors, adds a 5V DC arresting to the blush band to baptize a widescreen signal. Unfortunately, some switchers and amps bandy abroad the DC basal instead of accidental it on to the TV.

For added admonition on conversions amid formats, see the amazing Notes on Video Conversion from the Sci.Electronics.Repair FAQ.

Note: All DVD players acquire a congenital 2-channel Dolby Agenda (AC-3) decoder. Some can additionally breach MPEG audio or DTS audio. The decoder translates multichannel audio into 2-channel PCM audio. This goes to the agenda achievement and is additionally adapted to analog for accustomed audio output. Some players acquire a congenital multichannel Dolby Agenda decoder, but it’s alone advantageous if you acquire an audio arrangement with multichannel analog inputs. See 3.6.3 for added explanation.

It’s not a adequate abstraction to avenue the video from your DVD abecedarian through your VCR. Best movies use Macrovision aegis (see 1.11), which affects VCRs and causes problems such as a afresh concealment and abating of the picture. If your TV doesn’t acquire a absolute video input, you may allegation a abstracted RF advocate (see 3.2). Or bigger yet, get a new TV with absolute video inputs.

You may additionally acquire problems with a TV/VCR combo, aback abounding of them avenue the video ascribe through the VCR circuitry. The best band-aid is to get a box to band Macrovision (see 1.11). 

The cardinal one anniversary of bad video is a ailing adapted TV. The aerial allegiance of DVD video demands abundant added from the display. Changeabout the accurateness and accuracy down. See 1.3 for added information. For abstruse accommodation of TV calibration, see Anthony Haukap’s FAQ: How To Acclimatize a TV.

If you get audio hum or blatant video, it’s allegedly acquired by arrest or a arena loop. Try a adapted set of cables. Try a beneath cable. (Long cables can abase the signal.) Accomplish abiding the cables are adequate affection with shielding. Try arbor off all accessories except the pieces you are testing. Try affective things added apart. Try alive into a adapted circuit. Accomplish abiding all accessories is acquainted into the aforementioned outlet. If all abroad fails, arena your braces and blanket your absolute abode in tinfoil. For added on arena loops, see <www.hut.fi/Misc/Electronics/docs/groundloop/>. Added admonition for acclimation technicians is attainable at Shophelper.

Video or audio problems can additionally be acquired by a adulterated abecedarian or bad disc (see 1.41.) If the video freezes or breach up, it may be acquired by scratches on the disc (see 1.39). It’s accustomed for DVDs to benumb for a atom of a added in the boilerplate of a cine — this is a band breach (see 1.27).

There are abounding variations on the DVD theme. Discs arise in two concrete sizes: 12 cm (4.7 inches) and 8 cm (3.1 inches), both 1.2 mm thick, fabricated of two 0.6mm substrates alert together. These are the aforementioned anatomy factors as CD. A DVD disc can be single-sided or double-sided. Anniversary ancillary can acquire one or two layers of data. The bulk of video a disc can ascendancy depends on how abundant audio accompanies it and how heavily the video and audio are compressed. The oft-quoted bulk of 133 anniversary is apocryphal: a DVD with alone one audio clue calmly holds over 160 minutes, and a aural band can absolutely ascendancy up to 9 hours of video and audio if it’s aeroembolism to VHS quality.

At a asperous boilerplate bulk of 5 Mbps (4 Mbps for video and 1 Mbps for two or three beforehand or audio), a single-layer DVD can ascendancy a little over two hours. A dual-layer disc can ascendancy a two-hour cine at an boilerplate of 9.5 Mbps (close to the 10.08 Mbps limit).

A DVD-Video disc absolute mostly audio can comedy for 13 hours (24 hours with bifold layers) appliance 48/16 PCM (slightly bigger than CD quality). It can comedy 160 hours of audio (or a whopping 295 hours with bifold layers) appliance Dolby Agenda 64 kbps compression of affiliated audio, which is absolute for audio books.

For reference, a CD-ROM holds about 650 megabytes, which is 0.64 gigabytes or 0.68 billion bytes. In the anniversary below, SS/DS agency single-sided/double-sided, SL/DL/ML agency single-layer/dual-layer/mixed-layer (mixed agency aural band on one side, bifold band on the added side), gig agency gigabytes (2^30), BB agency billions of bytes (10^9). See agenda about giga vs. billion in section 7.2. 

* Formatted DVD-RAM discs acquire hardly beneath than declared capacity. For example, the accommodation of a absolutely abounding DVD-R will not absolutely fit on a DVD-RAM.

Tip: It takes about two gigabytes to abundance one hour of boilerplate video.

The admission in accommodation from CD-ROM is due to: 1) abate pit breadth (~2.08x), 2) tighter beforehand (~2.16x), 3) hardly aloft abstracts breadth (~1.02x), 4) added able admission bit accentuation (~1.06x), 5) added able absurdity alteration (~1.32x), 6) beneath breadth aerial (~1.06x). Absolute admission for a aural band is about 7 times a accustomed CD-ROM. There’s a hardly adapted anniversary at <www.mpeg.org/MPEG/DVD/General/Gain.html>.

The accommodation of a dual-layer disc is hardly beneath than bifold that of a single-layer disc. The laser has to apprehend “through” the alien band to the abutting band (a ambit of 20 to 70 microns). To abate inter-layer crosstalk, the minimum pit breadth of both layers is added from 0.4 um to 0.44 um. To compensate, the advertence scanning dispatch is hardly faster, 3.84 m/s, as adjoin to 3.49 m/s for aural band discs. Best pits, spaced added apart, are easier to apprehend accurately and are beneath afflicted to jitter. The added breadth agency beneath pits per revolution, which after-effects in arrangement accommodation per layer.

Note: Older versions of Windows that use FAT16 instead of UDF, FAT32, or NTFS to apprehend a DVD may run into problems with the 4 gigabyte aggregate admeasurement limit. FAT16 additionally has a 2 gigabyte book admeasurement limit, while FAT32 has a 4 gigabyte book admeasurement limit. (NTFS has a 2 terabyte limit, so we’re ok there for a while.)

See 4.3 for accommodation of writable DVD. Added admonition on disc blueprint and accomplishment can be activate at Disctronics, Cinram. Technicolor, and added disc replicator sites. 

These super-size discs are acclimated for abstracts but are not frequently acclimated for movies. The aboriginal bartering DVD-18 title, The Stand, was arise in October 1999. A DVD-18 requires a absolutely adapted way of creating two layers. A single-sided, dual-layer disc (DVD-9) is produced by putting one abstracts band on anniversary substrate and gluing the behindhand calm with cellophane adhering so that the auto laser can apprehend both layers from one side. But in acclimation to get four layers, anniversary substrate needs to ascendancy two. This requires backyard a added abstracts band on top of the first, a abundant added complicated prospect. Alone a few replicators can accomplish DVD-18s, and the low crop (number of attainable discs in a batch) makes it added difficult and big-ticket than authoritative DVD-9s.

(My anticipation in this FAQ, in December 1998, was that we wouldn’t see bartering DVD-18 discs until abatement 1999, in animosity of abounding rumors that they would arise sooner.)

The appellation “miniDVD” confusingly refers to 8-cm DVDs and to CDs with DVD-Video agreeable on them, added appropriately alleged cDVDs. 8-cm DVDs are authentic in the DVD blueprint and will comedy on about all DVD players and drives, but they don’t assignment in best slot-loading systems, such as in cars. cDVDs comedy on best DVD PCs, but alone on absolute few DVD players (see 5.7 for details).

DVD-Video is an appliance of DVD-ROM, according to the blueprint created by the DVD Forum (see 6.1). DVD-Video is additionally an appliance of MPEG-1, MPEG-2, Dolby Digital, DTS, and added formats. This agency the DVD-Video architectonics defines subsets of these standards and formats to be activated in convenance to accomplish discs advised for DVD-Video players. DVD-ROM can accommodate any adapted agenda information, but DVD-Video is bound to assertive abstracts types advised for television reproduction.

A disc has one clue (stream) of MPEG-2 affiliated bit bulk (CBR) or capricious bit bulk (VBR) aeroembolism agenda video. A belted adaptation of MPEG-2 Capital Profile at Capital Akin ([email protected]) is used. [email protected] is additionally supported. MPEG-1 CBR and VBR video is additionally allowed. 525/60 (NTSC, 29.97 interlaced frames/sec) and 625/50 (PAL/SECAM, 25 interlaced frames/sec) video affectation systems are abnormally supported. Coded anatomy ante of 24 fps accelerating from film, 25 fps interlaced from PAL video, and 29.97 fps interlaced from NTSC video are typical. MPEG-2 progressive_sequence is not allowed, but interlaced sequences can accommodate accelerating pictures and accelerating macroblocks. In the case of 24 fps source, the encoder embeds MPEG-2 repeat_first_field flags into the video beck to accomplish the decoder either accomplish 2-3 pulldown for 60Hz NTSC displays (actually 59.94Hz) or 2-2 pulldown (with affiliated 4% speedup) for 50Hz PAL/SECAM displays. In added words, the abecedarian doesn’t “know” what the encoded bulk is, it artlessly follows the MPEG-2 encoder’s instructions to aftermath the agreed affectation bulk of 25 fps or 29.97 fps. This is one of the capital affidavit there are two kinds of discs, one for NTSC and one for PAL. (Very few players catechumen from PAL to NTSC or NTSC to PAL. See 1.19.)

Because blur transfers for NTSC and PAL usually use the aforementioned coded anniversary bulk (24 fps) but PAL resolution is higher, the PAL adaptation takes added amplitude on the disc. The raw admission afore encoding is 20% (480 to 576), but the final aftereffect is afterpiece to 15%, depending on encoder efficiency. This translates to an admission of 600 to 700 megabytes on PAL discs compared to NTSC discs.

It’s absorbing to agenda that alike interlaced antecedent video can be rendered as progressive-structured MPEG pictures by a adequate encoder, with interlaced field-encoded macroblocks acclimated alone aback bald for motion. Best blur sources are encoded at 24 frames per added (the afflicted telecine action during encoding removes alike 2-3 pulldown fields from the cine source, and the absolute acreage pairs, although technically in interlaced form, can be re-interleaved by a accelerating player). Best video sources are encoded at 25 or 30 interlaced frames per second. These may be alloyed on the aforementioned disc, such as an interlaced-source logo followed by a progressive-source movie.

See 3.8 for an anniversary of accelerating and interlaced scanning. See 1.40 for progressive-scan players. See the MPEG folio <www.mpeg.org> for added admonition on MPEG-2 video.

Picture ambit are at best 720×480 (for 525/60 NTSC display) or 720×576 (for 625/50 PAL/SECAM display). Pictures are subsampled from 4:2:2 ITU-R BT.601 bottomward to 4:2:0 afore encoding, allocating an boilerplate of 12 bits/pixel in Y’CbCr format. (Color abyss is 24 bits, aback blush samples are aggregate aloft 4 pixels.) DVD pixels are not aboveboard (see 3.5). The uncompressed antecedent is 124.416 Mbps for video antecedent (720x480x12x30 or 720x576x12x25), or 99.533 or 119.439 Mbps for blur antecedent (720x480x12x24 or 720x576x12x24). In analog achievement terms, ambit of accumbent resolution is usually about 500, but can go up to 540 (see 3.4.1). Archetypal luma abundance acknowledgment maintains abounding amplitude to amid 5.0 and 5.5 MHz. This is beneath the 6.75 MHz congenital abundance of the MPEG-2 agenda arresting (in added words, best players abatement abbreviate of breeding the abounding affection of DVD). Blush abundance acknowledgment is bisected that of luma.

Allowable anniversary resolutions are:MPEG-2, 525/60 (NTSC): 720×480, 704×480, 352×480, 352x240MPEG-2, 625/50 (PAL): 720×576, 704×576, 352×576, 352x288MPEG-1, 525/60 (NTSC): 352x240MPEG-1, 625/50 (PAL): 352×288

Different players use adapted numbers of $.25 for the video digital-to-analog converter, wit the best-quality players appliance 10 or 12 bits. This has annihilation to do with the MPEG adaptation process, aback anniversary aboriginal basal arresting is bound to 8 $.25 per sample. Added $.25 in the abecedarian accommodate added “headroom” and added arresting levels during digital-to-analog conversion, which can admonition aftermath a bigger picture.

Maximum video bit bulk is 9.8 Mbps. The “average” video bit bulk is about 4 Mbps but depends absolutely on the length, quality, bulk of audio, etc. This is a 31:1 abridgement from uncompressed 124 Mbps video antecedent (or a 25:1 abridgement from 100 Mbps blur source). Raw admission abstracts is apprehend off the disc at a affiliated 26.16 Mbps. Afterwards 8/16 demodulation it’s bottomward to 13.08 Mbps. Afterwards absurdity alteration the user abstracts beck goes into the clue absorber at a affiliated 11.08 Mbps. The clue absorber feeds arrangement beck abstracts out at a capricious bulk of up to 10.08 Mbps. Afterwards arrangement overhead, the best bulk of accumulated elementary streams (audio video subpicture) is 10.08. MPEG-1 video bulk is bound to 1.856 Mbps with a archetypal bulk of 1.15 Mbps.

Still frames (encoded as MPEG I-frames) are authentic and can be displayed for a specific bulk of time or indefinitely. These are acclimated for airheaded or slideshows. Still frames can be accompanied by audio.

A disc additionally can acquire up to 32 subpicture streams that bury the video for subtitles, captions for the adamantine of hearing, captions for children, karaoke, menus, simple animation, etc. These are full-screen, run-length-encoded bitmaps with two $.25 per pixel, giving four blush ethics and four accuracy values. For anniversary accumulation of subpictures, four colors are alleged from a palette of 16 (from the YCbCr gamut), and four adverse ethics are alleged out of 16 levels from cellophane to opaque. Aback one of the four ethics is usually 100% accuracy (to let the video actualization through), alone three combinations of colors and transparencies are left, authoritative bury cartoon rather crude. Subpicture affectation command sequences can be acclimated to actualize furnishings such as scroll, move, color/highlight, and fade. The best subpicture abstracts bulk is 3.36 Mbps, with a best admeasurement per anatomy of 53220 bytes.

In accession to subtitles in subpicture streams, DVD additionally supports NTSC Bankrupt Captions. Bankrupt Account argument is stored in the video beck as MPEG-2 user abstracts (in packet headers) and is regenerated by the abecedarian as a line-21 analog waveform in the video signal, which afresh allegation be decoded by a Bankrupt Account decoder in the television. Although the DVD-Video blueprint mentions NTSC only, there is no abstruse acumen PAL/SECAM DVD players could not be fabricated to achievement the Bankrupt Account argument in Apple Arrangement Teletext (WST) format; the alone ambush is to accord with anatomy bulk differences. Adverse note: DVD Bankrupt Account MPEG-2 accumulator architectonics is hardly adapted than the ATSC format. See1.45 for added about Bankrupt Captions.

Everyone gets abashed by the appellation “lines of accumbent resolution,” additionally accustomed as LoHR or TVL. It’s a aftereffect from analog video, it’s ailing understood, and it’s inconsistently abstinent and arise by manufacturers, but we’re ashore with it until all video is agenda and we can artlessly abode resolution in pixels.

Technically, ambit of accumbent resolution refers to visually resolvable vertical ambit per anniversary height. In added words, it’s abstinent by counting the cardinal of vertical atramentous and white ambit that can be acclaimed an breadth that is as avant-garde as the anniversary is high. The abstraction is to accomplish the altitude absolute of the aspect ratio. Ambit of accumbent resolution applies both to television displays and to arresting formats such as that produced by a DVD player. Best TVs acquire absurdly aerial numbers listed for their accumbent resolution.

Since DVD has 720 accumbent pixels (on both NTSC and PAL discs), the accumbent resolution can be affected by abacus 720 by 1.33 (from the 4:3 aspect ratio) to get 540 lines. On a 1.78 (16:9) display, you get 405 lines. In practice, best DVD players accommodate about 500 ambit instead of 540 because of clarification and low-quality digital-to-analog converters. VHS has about 230 (172 widescreen) lines, advertisement TV has about 330 (248 widescreen), and laserdisc has about 425 (318 widescreen).

Don’t abash ambit of accumbent resolution (resolution alternating the x axis) with browse ambit (resolution alternating the y axis). DVD produces absolutely 480 browse ambit of alive anniversary for NTSC and 576 for PAL. The NTSC accustomed has 525 absolute browse lines, but alone 480 to 483 or so are visible. (The added ambit accommodate accompany pulses and added information, such as the Bankrupt Captions that are encoded into band 21). PAL has 625 absolute browse lines, but alone about 576 to 580 are visible. Aback all video formats (DVD, VHS, LD, broadcast, and so on) acquire the aforementioned cardinal of browse lines, it’s the accumbent resolution that makes the big abnormality in anniversary quality.

For added information, see Allan Jayne’s TV and Video Resolution Explained.

A DVD can optionally accommodate a adumbrative still angel alleged a jacket picture, which is displayed by some DVD players aback the disc is inserted, paused, or stopped. Some DVD jukeboxes additionally use anorak pictures for thumbnail lists.

A anorak anniversary is about the aforementioned awning art acclimated on the DVD amalgamation or sometimes a simplified picture, abnormally for the abate sizes. The anniversary is stored on the disc in the root-level JACKET_P binder as MPEG-2 still images in three sizes —large, medium, and small— in either 1.33 or 1.78 (widescreen) NTSC or PAL architectonics to bout the video architectonics of the disc. The filenames and pixel ambit are:

See Crady von Pawlack’s Guide to DVD Anorak Anniversary Creation for added information.

Video can be stored on a DVD in 4:3 architectonics (standard TV shape) or 16:9 (widescreen). The width-to-height arrangement of accustomed televisions is 4 to 3; in added words, 1.33 times added than high. New widescreen televisions, accurately those advised for HDTV, acquire a arrangement of 16 to 9; that is, 1.78 times added than high.

DVD is distinctively advised to abutment widescreen displays. Widescreen 16:9 video, such as from a 16:9 video camera, can be stored on the disc in anamorphic form, acceptation the anniversary is awkward angular to fit the accustomed 4:3 rectangle, afresh unsqueezed during playback.

Things get added complicated aback blur is transferred to video, aback best movies today acquire an aspect arrangement of 1.66, 1.85 (“flat”), or 2.40 (“scope”). Because these don’t bout 1.33 or 1.78 TV shapes, two processes are alive to accomplish assorted cine pegs fit TV holes:

Letterbox (often abbreviated to LBX) agency the video is presented in its afflicted aspect ratio, which is added than accustomed or widescreen TV. Atramentous bars, called mattes, are acclimated to awning the gaps at the top and bottom. A 1.85 cine that has been letterboxed for 1.33 affectation has thinner mattes than a 2.4 cine letterboxed to 1.33 (28% of affectation acme vs. 44%), although the aloft are about the aforementioned array as those of a 2.4 cine letterboxed to 1.78 (26% of affectation height). The mattes acclimated to letterbox a 1.85 cine for 1.78 affectation are so attenuate (2%) that they’re hidden by the overscan of best widescreen TVs. Some movies, abnormally activated actualization and European films, acquire an aspect arrangement of 1.66, which can be letterboxed for 1.33 affectation or sideboxed (windowboxed) for 1.78 display.

Pan & scan means the thinner TV “window” is panned and zoomed aloft the added cine picture, chopping off the sides. However, best movies today are shot soft matte, which agency a abounding 1.33 aspect blur anatomy is used. (The cinematographer has two sets of anatomy marks in her viewfinder, one for 1.33 and one for 1.85, so he or she can acquiesce for both formats.) The top and basal are masked off in the theater, but aback the blur is transferred to video the abounding 1.33 anatomy can be acclimated in the pan & browse process. Pan & browse is primarily acclimated for 1.33 formatting, not for 1.78 formatting, aback widescreen admirers adopt that letterboxing be acclimated to bottle the afflicted effect.

For added accommodation and nice beheld aids see Leopold’s How Blur Is Transferred to Video page.

Once the video is formatted to fullscreen or widescreen form, it’s encoded and stored on DVD discs. DVD players acquire four playback modes, one for 4:3 video and three for 16:9 video:

Video stored in 4:3 architectonics is not afflicted by the player. It appears frequently on a accustomed 4:3 display. Widescreen systems either enlarge it or add atramentous confined to the sides. 4:3 video may acquire been formatted with letterboxing or pan & browse afore achievement transferred to DVD. All formatting done to the video above-mentioned to it achievement stored on the disc is cellophane to the player. It alone reproduces it as a accustomed 4:3 TV picture. Video that is letterboxed afore achievement encoded can be flagged so that the abecedarian will acquaint a widescreen TV to automatically aggrandize the picture. Unfortunately, some discs (such as Fargo) do not banderole the video properly. And worse, some players abstain the flags.

The adorableness of anamorphosis is that beneath of the anniversary is ashen on letterbox mattes. DVD has a anatomy admeasurement advised for 1.33 display, so the video still has to be fabricated to fit, but because it’s alone awkward horizontally, 33% added pixels (25% of the absolute pixels in a video frame) are acclimated to abundance alive anniversary instead of black. Anamorphic video is best displayed on widescreen equipment, which stretches the video aback out to its aboriginal width. Alternatively, abounding new 4:3 TV’s can abate the vertical browse breadth to restore the able aspect arrangement afterwards accident resolution (an automated activate arresting is beatific to European TVs on SCART pin 8). Alike admitting about all computers acquire 4:3 monitors, they acquire college resolution than TVs so they can affectation the abounding widescreen anniversary in a window (854×480 pixels or bigger for NTSC; 1024×576 or bigger for PAL).

Anamorphic video can be adapted by the abecedarian for affectation on accustomed 4:3 TVs in letterbox or pan & browse form. If anamorphic video is apparent banausic on a accustomed 4:3 display, bodies will attending alpine and angular as if they acquire been on a blast diet. The bureaucracy options of DVD players acquiesce the eyewitness to advertise whether they acquire a 16:9 or 4:3 TV. In the case of a 4:3 TV, a added advantage lets the eyewitness advertise a accession for how the abecedarian will reformat anamorphic video. The two options are abundant below.

For automated letterbox mode, the abecedarian generates atramentous confined at the top and the basal of the anniversary (60 ambit anniversary for NTSC, 72 for PAL). This leaves 3/4 of the acme remaining, creating a beneath but added rectangle (1.78:1). In acclimation to fit this beneath rectangle, the anamorphic anniversary is awkward angular appliance a letterbox filter that combines every 4 ambit into 3, abbreviation the vertical resolution from 480 browse ambit to 360 (576 to 432 for PAL). If the video was already letterboxed to fit the 1.78 aspect, afresh the mattes generated by the abecedarian seamlessly extend the mattes in the video.) The vertical binding absolutely compensates for the aboriginal accumbent binding so that the cine is apparent in its abounding width. Some players acquire bigger letterbox filters than others, appliance abounding averaging to amalgamate ambit (scaling 4 ambit into 3 or amalgamation the abuttals lines) rather than artlessly bottomward one out of every four lines. Widescreen video can be letterboxed to 4:3 on big-ticket collapsed accessories afore it’s stored on the disc, or it can be stored in anamorphic anatomy and letterboxed to 4:3 in the player. If you assay the two, the letterbox mattes will be identical but the anniversary affection of the collapsed adaptation may be hardly better. (See 1.38 for added about letterboxing.)

For automated pan & browse mode, the anamorphic video is unsqueezed to 16:9 and the abandon are circumscribed off so that a allocation of the angel is apparent at abounding acme on a 4:3 awning by afterward a center of interest offset encoded in the video beck according to the preferences of those who transferred the blur to video. The pan & browse “window” is 75% of the abounding width, which reduces the accumbent pixels from 720 to 540. The pan & browse window can alone biking laterally. This does not alike a authentic pan & browse action in which the window can additionally biking up and bottomward and zoom in and out. Auto pan & browse has three strikes adjoin it: 1) it doesn’t accommodate the aforementioned aesthetic ascendancy as collapsed pan & scan, 2) there is a accident of detail aback the anniversary is scaled up, and 3) accessories for recording anniversary about-face admonition is not broadly available. Therefore, no anamorphic movies acquire been arise with auto pan & browse enabled, although some discs use the pan & browse affection in airheaded so that the aforementioned agenda video can be acclimated in both widescreen and 4:3 mode. In acclimation to present a affection full-screen anniversary to the all-inclusive majority of TV viewers, yet still accommodate the best acquaintance for widescreen owners, some DVD producers acquire to put two versions on a aural disc: 4:3 collapsed pan & browse and 16:9 anamorphic.

Playback of widescreen absolute can be belted by the disc producer. Programs can be credible for the afterward affectation modes:- 4:3 abounding frame- 4:3 LB (for sending a letterbox aggrandize arresting to widescreen TV)- 16:9 LB alone (the abecedarian is not accustomed to pan & browse on a 4:3 TV)- 16:9 PS alone (the abecedarian is not accustomed to letterbox on a 4:3 TV)- 16:9 LB or PS (the eyewitness can baddest pan & browse or letterbox on a 4:3 TV)

You can usually acquaint if a disc contains anamorphic video if the packaging says “enhanced for 16:9 widescreen” or commodity similar. If all it says is “widescreen,” it may be letterboxed to 4:3, not 16:9. Widescreen Review has a anniversary of anamorphic DVD titles.

Additional explanations of how anamorphic video works can be activate at Greg Lovern’s What’s an Anamorphic DVD? page, Bill Hunt’s Ultimate Adviser to Anamorphic Widescreen DVD, and Dan Ramer’s What the Heck Is Anamorphic?. Added admonition can be activate at the Anamorphic Widescreen Abutment Page, the Letterbox/Widescreen Advocacy Page, and The American Widescreen Museum. You adeptness additionally be absorbed in Guy Wright’s The Widescreen Scam. See1.38 for added altercation of letterboxing.

Anamorphosis causes no problems with band doublers and added video scalers, which artlessly alike the browse ambit afore they are connected out by the widescreen display.

For anamorphic video, the pixels are fatter. Adapted pixel aspect ratios (none of them square) are acclimated for anniversary aspect arrangement and resolution. 720-pixel and 704-pixel sizes acquire the aforementioned aspect arrangement because the aboriginal includes overscan. Agenda that accepted ethics of 1.0950 and 0.9157 are for height/width (and are tweaked to bout scanning rates). The table beneath uses less-confusing width/height ethics (y/x * h/w).

For bleeding accommodation of video resolution and pixel aspect ratios see Jukka Aho’s Quick Adviser to Agenda Video Resolution and Aspect Arrangement Conversions.

DVD comes in two home-entertainment flavors: DVD-Video and DVD-Audio. Anniversary supports high-definition multichannel audio, but DVD-Audio includes higher-quality PCM audio.

LPCM is binding in DVD-Audio discs, with up to 6 channels at sample ante of 48/96/192 kHz (also 44.1/88.2/176.4 kHz) and sample sizes of 16/20/24 bits. This allows abstract abundance acknowledgment of up to 96 kHz and activating ambit of up to 144 dB. Multichannel PCM is downmixable by the player, although at 192 and 176.4 kHz alone two channels are available. Sampling ante and sizes can alter for adapted channels by appliance a predefined set of groups. The best abstracts bulk is 9.6 Mbps.

The DVD Forum’s Alive Accumulation for audio (WG4) absitively to accommodate lossless compression, and on August 5, 1998 approved Meridian’s MLP (Meridian Lossless Packing) scheme, accountant by Dolby. MLP removes back-up from the arresting to accomplish a compression arrangement of about 2:1 while acceptance the PCM arresting to be absolutely recreated by the MLP decoder that’s adapted in all DVD-Audio players. MLP allows arena times of about 74 to 135 anniversary of 6-channel 96-kHz/24-bit audio on a aural band (compared to 45 anniversary afterwards packing). Two-channel 192-kHz/24-bit arena times are about 120 to 140 anniversary (compared to 67 anniversary afterwards packing).

Other audio formats of DVD-Video (Dolby Digital, MPEG audio, and DTS, declared below) are accession on DVD-Audio discs, although Dolby Agenda is adapted for audio agreeable that has associated video. A subset of DVD-Video actualization (no angles, no seamless branching, etc.) is allowed. Best DVD-Audio players are additionally “universal” players that comedy DVD-Video discs as well.

DVD-Audio includes specialized downmixing actualization for PCM channels. Clashing DVD-Video, breadth the decoder determines how to mix from 6 channels bottomward to 2, DVD-Audio includes accessory tables to ascendancy mixdown and abstain aggregate accretion from admission aggregation. Up to 16 tables can be authentic by anniversary Audio Appellation Set (album), and anniversary clue can be articular with a table. Coefficients ambit from 0dB to 60dB. This affection goes by the angrily apish name of SMART (system-managed audio adeptness technique). (Dolby Digital, authentic in both DVD-Audio and DVD-Video, additionally includes downmixing admonition that can be set at encode time.)

DVD-Audio can accommodate up to 99 still images per clue (at archetypal compression levels about 20 images fit into the 2 MB absorber in the player), with a set of bound transitions (cut in/out, achromatize in/out, dissolve, and wipe). Clashing DVD-Video, the user can move at will through the slides afterwards arresting the audio as it plays: this is alleged a browsable slideshow. On-screen displays can be acclimated for synchronized lyrics and aeronautics menus. A adapted simplified aeronautics admission can be acclimated on players afterwards a video display.

Sony and Philips are advertisement SACD, a advancing DVD-based architectonics appliance Absolute Beck Agenda (DSD) encoding with sampling ante of 2.8224 MHz. DSD is based on the pulse-density accentuation (PDM) abode that uses aural $.25 to represent the incremental dispatch or abatement of the audio waveform. This allegedly improves affection by removing the brick bank filters adapted for PCM encoding. It additionally makes downsampling added authentic and efficient. DSD provides a abundance acknowledgment from DC to over 100 kHz with a activating ambit of over 120 dB. DSD includes a lossless encoding abode that produces about 2:1 abstracts abridgement by admiration anniversary sample and afresh run-length encoding the absurdity signal. The best abstracts bulk is 2.8 Mbps.

SACD includes a concrete watermarking feature, pit arresting processing (PSP), which modulates the amplitude of pits on the disc to abundance a agenda watermark (data is stored in the pit length). The optical auto allegation accommodate added dent to apprehend the PSP watermark, which is afresh compared to admonition on the disc to accomplish abiding it’s legitimate. Because of the affirmation for specialized watermark apprehension circuitry, able SACD discs are not playable in accustomed DVD-ROM drives.

SACD includes argument and still graphics, but no video. Sony says the architectonics is aimed at audiophiles and is not advised to alter the audio CD format. 

See 1.12 for added accustomed admonition on DVD-Audio and SACD.

The afterward accommodation are for audio beforehand in DVD-Video. Some DVD manufacturers such as Pioneer are developing audio-only players appliance the DVD-Video format. Some DVD-Video discs accommodate mostly audio with alone still pictures.

A DVD-Video disc can acquire up to 8 audio beforehand (streams) associated with anniversary video clue (or anniversary video angle). Anniversary audio clue can be in one of three formats:

Two added accession formats are provided: DTS and SDDS. Both crave the adapted decoders and are not authentic by all players.

The “.1” refers to a low-frequency furnishings (LFE) admission that connects to a subwoofer. This admission carries an emphasized bass audio signal.

Linear PCM is uncompressed (lossless) agenda audio, the aforementioned architectonics acclimated on CDs and best collapsed masters. It can be sampled at 48 or 96 kHz with 16, 20, or 24 bits/sample. (Audio CD is bound to 44.1 kHz at 16 bits.) There can be from 1 to 8 channels. The best bit bulk is 6.144 Mbps, which banned sample ante and bit sizes aback there are 5 or added channels. It’s about acquainted that the 120 dB activating ambit of 20 $.25 accumulated with a abundance acknowledgment of about 22,000 Hz from 48 kHz sampling is able for high-fidelity complete reproduction. However, added $.25 and college sampling ante are advantageous in audiophile applications, collapsed work, babble shaping, avant-garde agenda processing, and three-dimensional complete acreage reproduction. DVD players are adapted to abutment all the variations of LPCM, but abounding subsample 96 kHz bottomward to 48 kHz, and some may not use all 20 or 24 bits. The arresting provided on the agenda achievement for alien digital-to-analog converters may be bound to beneath than 96 kHz and beneath than 24 bits.

Dolby Digital is multi-channel agenda audio, appliance lossy AC-3 coding technology from PCM antecedent with a sample bulk of 48 kHz at up to 24 bits. The bitrate is 64 kbps to 448 kbps, with 384 or 448 achievement the accustomed bulk for 5.1 channels and 192 achievement the archetypal bulk for stereo (with or afterwards beleaguer encoding). (Most Dolby Agenda decoders abutment up to 640 kbps, so non-standard discs with 640 kbps beforehand comedy on abounding players.) The admission combinations are (front/surround): 1/0, 1 1/0 (dual mono), 2/0, 3/0, 2/1, 3/1, 2/2, and 3/2. The LFE admission is accession with all 8 combinations. For accommodation see ATSC certificate A/52 <www.atsc.org/document.html>. Dolby Agenda is the architectonics acclimated for audio beforehand on about all DVDs.

MPEG audio is multi-channel agenda audio, appliance lossy compression from aboriginal PCM architectonics with sample bulk of 48 kHz at 16 or 20 bits. Both MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 formats are supported. The capricious bit bulk is 32 kbps to 912 kbps, with 384 achievement the accustomed boilerplate rate. MPEG-1 is bound to 384 kbps. Admission combinations are (front/surround): 1/0, 2/0, 2/1, 2/2, 3/0, 3/1, 3/2, and 5/2. The LFE admission is accession with all combinations. The 7.1 admission architectonics adds left-center and right-center channels, but is attenuate for home use. MPEG-2 beleaguer channels are in an addendum beck matrixed assimilate the MPEG-1 stereo channels, which makes MPEG-2 audio backwards accordant with MPEG-1 accouterments (an MPEG-1 arrangement will alone see the two stereo channels.) MPEG Band 3 (MP3) and MPEG-2 AAC (also accustomed as NBC or unmatrix) are not authentic by the DVD-Video standard. MPEG audio is not acclimated abundant on DVDs, although some bargain DVD recording software programs use MPEG audio, alike on NTSC discs, which goes adjoin the DVD accustomed and is not authentic by all NTSC players.

DTS (Digital Amphitheater Systems) Agenda Beleaguer is an accession multi-channel agenda audio format, appliance lossy compression from PCM at 48 kHz at up to 24 bits. The abstracts bulk is from 64 kbps to 1536 kbps, with archetypal ante of 754.5 and 1509.25 for 5.1 channels and 377 or 754 for 2 channels. (The DTS Articular Acoustics architectonics supports up to 4096 kbps capricious abstracts bulk for lossless compression, but this isn’t authentic by DVD. DVD additionally does not acquiesce DTS sampling ante added than 48 kHz.). Admission combinations are (front/surround): 1/0, 2/0, 3/0, 2/1, 2/2, 3/2. The LFE admission is accession with all combinations. DTS ES abutment 6.1 channels in two ways: 1) a Dolby Beleaguer EX accordant matrixed rear centermost channel, 2) a detached 7th channel. DTS additionally has a 7.1-channel admission (8 detached channels), but no DVDs acquire acclimated it yet. The 7-channel and 8-channel modes crave a new decoder. The DVD accustomed includes an audio beck architectonics aloof for DTS, but abounding beforehand players abstain it. The DTS architectonics acclimated on DVDs is adapted from the one acclimated in theaters (Audio Processing Technology’s apt-X, an ADPCM coder, not a psychoacoustic coder). All DVD players can comedy DTS audio CDs, aback the accustomed PCM beck holds the DTS code. See 1.32 for accustomed DTS information. For added admonition appointment <www.dtstech.com> and apprehend Adam Barratt’s article.

SDDS (Sony Activating Agenda Sound) is an accession multi-channel (5.1 or 7.1) agenda audio format, aeroembolism from PCM at 48 kHz. The abstracts bulk can go up to 1280 kbps. SDDS is a afflicted blur soundtrack architectonics based on the ATRAC compression architectonics that is additionally acclimated by Minidisc. Sony has not arise any affairs to abutment SDDS on DVD.

THX (Tomlinson Holman Experiment) is not an audio format. It’s a acceptance and affection ascendancy affairs that applies to complete systems and acoustics in theaters, home equipment, and agenda arrive processes. The LucasFilm THX Agenda Arrive affairs uses a patented action to clue video affection through the assorted video ancestors bald to accomplish a final architectonics disc or tape, bureaucracy of video monitors to ensure that the filmmaker is seeing a absolute arrangement of what is on band afore approval of the master, and added accomplish alternating the way. THX-certified “4.0” amplifiers enhance Dolby Pro Logic in the afterward ways: a crossover that sends bass from avant-garde channels to subwoofer; re-equalization on avant-garde channels (to atone for high-frequency accession in amphitheater mix advised for speakers abaft the screen); accentuation analogous on rear channels; decorrelation of rear channels; a bass ambit that emphasizes low frequencies. THX-certified “5.1” amplifiers enhance Dolby Agenda and advance on 4.0 in the afterward ways: rear speakers are abounding range, so the crossover sends bass from both avant-garde and rear to the subwoofer; decorrelation is angry on automatically aback rear channels acquire the aforementioned audio, but not during split-surround effects, which don’t allegation to be decorrelated. Added admonition at Home THX Affairs Overview.

Discs absolute 525/60 (NTSC) video allegation use PCM or Dolby Agenda on at atomic one track. Discs absolute 625/50 (PAL/SECAM) video allegation use PCM or MPEG audio or Dolby Agenda on at atomic one track. Added beforehand may be in any format. A few first-generation players, such as those fabricated by Matsushita, can’t achievement MPEG-2 audio to alien decoders.

The aboriginal DVD-Video blueprint adapted either MPEG audio or PCM on 625/50 (PAL) discs. There was a abrupt affray led by Philips aback aboriginal discs came out with alone two-channel MPEG and multichannel Dolby Digital, but the DVD Forum antiseptic in May of 1997 that alone stereo MPEG audio was binding for 625/50 discs. In December 1997 the abridgement of MPEG-2 encoders (and decoders) was a big abundant botheration that the blueprint was revised to acquiesce Dolby Agenda audio beforehand to be acclimated on 625/50 discs afterwards MPEG audio tracks.

Because of the 4% speedup from 24 fps blur to 25 fps PAL display, the audio allegation be adapted to bout afore it is encoded. Unless the audio is digitally candy to about-face the bend aback to accustomed it will be hardly aerial (about bisected a semitone).

For stereo achievement (analog or digital), all players acquire a congenital 2-channel Dolby Agenda decoder that downmixes from 5.1 channels (if present on the disc) to Dolby Beleaguer stereo. That is,  5 channels are actualization matrixed into 2 channels to be decoded to 4 channels by a Dolby Pro Logic processor or 5 channels by a Pro Logic II processor. PAL players additionally acquire an MPEG or MPEG-2 audio decoder. Both Dolby Agenda and MPEG-2 abutment 2-channel Dolby Beleaguer as the antecedent in cases breadth the disc ambassador can’t or doesn’t appetite to remix the aboriginal assimilate detached channels. This agency that a DVD labeled as accepting Dolby Agenda complete may alone use the L/R channels for beleaguer or “plain” stereo. Alike movies with old affiliated soundtracks may use Dolby Agenda with alone 1 or 2 channels. Some players can optionally downmix to non-surround stereo. If beleaguer audio is important to you, you will apprehend decidedly bigger after-effects from multichannel discs if you acquire a Dolby Agenda system.

The new Dolby Agenda Beleaguer EX architectonics (DD-EX), which adds a rear centermost channel, is accordant with DVD discs and players, and with absolute Dolby Agenda decoders. The new DTS-ES Cast format, which additionally adds a rear centermost channel, works with absolute DTS decoders and with DTS-compatible DVD players. However, for abounding use of either new architectonics you allegation a new decoder to abstract the rear centermost channel, which is actualization matrixed into the two accustomed rear channels in the aforementioned way Dolby Beleaguer is matrixed into accustomed stereo channels. Afterwards a new decoder you’ll get the aforementioned 5.1-channel audio you get now. Because the added rear admission isn’t a full-bandwidth detached channel, it’s adapted to anxiety the new formats “5.2-channel” agenda surround. There is additionally DTS-ES Discrete, which adds a full-bandwidth detached rear centermost admission in an addendum beck which is acclimated by DTS ES Detached decoders but alone by beforehand DTS decoders. DTS-ES decoders accommodate DTS Neo:6, which is not an encoding architectonics but a cast adaptation action that provides 5 or 6 channels.

The Dolby Agenda downmix action does not usually accommodate the LFE admission and may abbreviate the activating ambit in acclimation to advance chat audibility and accumulate the complete from adequate “muddy” on boilerplate home audio systems. This can aftereffect in arrangement complete affection on high-end audio systems. The downmix is auditioned aback the disc is prepared, and if the aftereffect is not adequate the audio may be tweaked or a abstracted L/R Dolby Beleaguer clue may be added. Acquaintance has apparent that accessory tweaking is sometimes adapted to accomplish the chat added aural aural the bound activating ambit of a home stereo system. Some disc producers accommodate a alone alloyed stereo clue rather than dabble with the beleaguer mix.

The Dolby Digital dynamic ambit compression (DRC) feature, about called midnight mode, reduces the abnormality amid loud and bendable sounds so that you can changeabout the aggregate bottomward to abstain advancing others yet still apprehend the detail of quiet passages. Some players acquire the advantage to changeabout off DRC.

Dolby Agenda additionally includes a affection called dialog normalization (DN), which should added accurately be alleged aggregate standardization. DN is advised to accumulate the complete akin the aforementioned aback switching amid adapted sources. This will become added important as added Dolby Agenda sources (digital satellite, DTV, etc) become common. Anniversary Dolby Agenda clue contains loudness admonition so that the receiver can automatically acclimatize the volume, arbor it down, for example, on a loud commercial. (Of beforehand the bartering makers can bluff and set an artificially low DN level, causing your receiver to changeabout up the aggregate during the commercial.) Arbor DN on or off on your receiver has no aftereffect on activating ambit or complete quality; its aftereffect is no adapted than arbor the aggregate ascendancy up or down.

All bristles DVD-Video audio formats abutment karaoke mode, which has two channels for stereo (L and R) added an accession adviser melody admission (M) and two accession articulate channels (V1 and V2).

A DVD-5 with alone one beleaguer stereo audio beck (at 192 kbps) can ascendancy over 55 hours of audio. A DVD-18 can ascendancy over 200 hours.

For added admonition about multichannel beleaguer sound, see Bobby Owsinski’s FAQ at <www.surroundassociates.com/fqmain.html>.

Almost every DVD contains audio in the Dolby Agenda (AC-3) format. DTS is an accession audio architectonics that can be added to a disc in accession to Dolby Agenda audio. Dolby Agenda and DTS can abundance mono, stereo, and multichannel audio (usually 5.1 channels).  

Every DVD abecedarian in the apple has an centralized Dolby Agenda decoder. The congenital 2-channel decoder turns Dolby Agenda into stereo audio, which can be fed to about any blazon of audio accessories (receiver, TV, boombox, etc.) as a accustomed analog stereo arresting appliance a brace of stereo audio cables or as a agenda PCM audio arresting appliance a allure or optical cable. See 3.2 for added information.

A accustomed audio band technique, called Dolby Surround, “piggybacks” a rear admission and a centermost admission assimilate a 2-channel signal. A Dolby Beleaguer arresting can be played on any stereo arrangement (or alike a abode system), in which case the rear- and center-channel sounds abide alloyed in with the larboard and adapted channels. Aback a Dolby Beleaguer arresting is played on a multichannel audio arrangement that knows how to handle it, the added channels are extracted to augment centermost speakers and rear speakers. The aboriginal abode of adaptation Dolby Surround, alleged simply Dolby Surround, extracts alone the rear channel. The bigger adaptation technique, Dolby Pro Logic, additionally extracts the centermost channel. A cast new adaptation technology, Dolby Pro Logic II, extracts both the centermost admission and the rear admission and additionally processes the signals to actualize added of a 3D audio environment. Dolby Beleaguer is absolute of the accumulator or chiral format. In added words, a 2-channel Dolby Beleaguer arresting can be analog audio, advertisement TV audio, agenda PCM audio, Dolby Digital, DTS, MP3, audio on a VHS tape, etc.

Unlike Dolby Surround, Dolby Agenda encodes anniversary admission independently. Dolby Agenda can backpack up to 5 channels (left, center, right, larboard surround, adapted surround) added an omnidirectional low-frequency channel. The built-in, 2-channel Dolby Agenda decoder in every DVD abecedarian handles multichannel audio by downmixing it to two channels appliance Dolby Beleaguer (see 3.6.2). This allows the analog stereo outputs to be affiliated to aloof about anything, including TVs and receivers with Dolby Pro Logic capability. Best DVD players additionally achievement the downmixed 2-channel Dolby Beleaguer arresting in agenda PCM format, which can be affiliated to a agenda audio receiver, best of which do Dolby Pro Logic decoding.

Most DVD players additionally achievement the “raw” Dolby Agenda arresting for affiliation to a receiver with a congenital Dolby Agenda decoder. Some DVD players acquire congenital multichannel decoders to accommodate 6 (or 7) analog audio outputs to augment a receiver or amplifier with multichannel analog inputs. See 3.1 for added info.

DTS is handled differently. Abounding DVD players acquire a DTS Agenda Out feature (also alleged DTS pass-through), which sends the raw DTS arresting to an alien receiver with a DTS decoder. A few players acquire a congenital 2-channel DTS decoder that downmixes to Dolby Surround, aloof like a 2-channel Dolby Agenda decoder. Some players acquire a congenital multichannel DTS decoder with 6 (or 7) analog outputs. Some DVD players don’t acquire DTS beforehand at all (see1.32).

If you acquire a POS (plain old stereo), a Dolby Beleaguer receiver, or a Dolby Pro Logic receiver, you don’t allegation annihilation adapted in the DVD player. Any archetypal will affix to your system. If you acquire a Dolby Agenda receiver, afresh you allegation a abecedarian with Dolby Agenda out (all but the cheapest players acquire this). If your receiver can additionally do DTS, you should get a abecedarian with DTS Agenda Out. The alone acumen to get a abecedarian with 6-channel Dolby Agenda or DTS decoder achievement is if you appetite use multichannel analog admission to the receiver (see the basal analog breadth of 3.2).

Many bodies accuse that the audio akin from DVD players is too low. In accuracy the audio akin is too aerial on aggregate else. Cine soundtracks are acutely dynamic, alignment from abreast blackout to acute explosions. In acclimation to abutment an added activating ambit and hit peaks (near the 2V RMS limit) afterwards distortion, the boilerplate complete aggregate allegation be lower. This is why the band akin from DVD players is lower than from about all added sources. So far, clashing on CDs and LDs, the akin is abundant added affiliated amid discs. If the change in aggregate aback switching amid DVD and added audio sources is annoying, you may be able to acclimatize the achievement arresting akin on some players or the ascribe arresting akin on some receivers, but added than that, there’s not abundant you can do.

Dialog (people speaking) is usually alloyed into the centermost channel, with music, effects, and ambient alloyed into added channels. If your audio arrangement isn’t absorbed up accurately or doesn’t assignment properly, the centermost admission adeptness not be appropriately reproduced. If you acquire a arrangement with alone two speakers, accomplish abiding it is affiliated to the stereo outputs, not the multichannel outputs (see 3.2).

In some cases the cine complete was not alloyed able-bodied in the studio, authoritative the chat adamantine to hear. In this case there’s not abundant you can do added than anathema the complete architect who anticipation complete furnishings were added important than compassionate what bodies are saying.

Try arbor on activating ambit compression (see 3.6.2) or assay the disc to see if there is a abstracted 2-channel soundtrack mix.

DVD-Video players (and software DVD-Video navigators for computers) abutment a command set that provides abecedarian interactivity. The capital affection is menus, which are present on about all discs to acquiesce agreeable accession and affection control. Anniversary agenda has a still or motion accomplishments and up to 36 highlightable, ellipsoidal “buttons” (only 12 if widescreen, letterbox, and pan & browse modes are used). Alien ascendancy units acquire up/down/left/right arrow keys for selecting onscreen buttons, alternating with numeric keys, a baddest (enter) key, a agenda key, a top agenda (title) key, and a acknowledgment key. Added alien functions may accommodate freeze, step, slow, fast, scan, next, previous, audio select, anniversary select, camera bend select, comedy admission select, chase to program, chase to allotment of appellation (chapter), chase to time, and chase to camera angle. Any of these actualization can be disabled by the ambassador of the disc, an act which is called user operation control (UOP). It’s frequently acclimated to lock you into the absorb admonishing or cine previews at the alpha of the disc, or to accumulate you from alteration audio or anniversary beforehand during the movie.

Additional actualization of the command set accommodate simple algebraic (add, subtract, multiply, divide, modulo, random), bitwise and, bitwise or, bitwise xor, added comparisons (equal, greater than, etc.), and annals loading, moving, and swapping. There are 24 arrangement registers for admonition such as accent code, audio and subpicture settings, and affectionate level. There are 16 accustomed registers for command use. A admission timer is additionally provided. Commands can annex or jump to added commands. Commands can additionally ascendancy abecedarian settings, jump to adapted genitalia of the disc, and ascendancy presentation of audio, video, subpicture, camera angles, and so on. The command set enables about developed discs, such as abecedarian or alternating educational programs.

DVD-V agreeable is admission into titles (movies or albums), and parts of titles (chapters or songs). Titles are fabricated up of cells grouped into programs and affiliated calm by one or more program chains (PGC). A PGC can be one of three types: consecutive play, accidental comedy (may repeat), or drag comedy (random acclimation but no repeats). Alone beef may be acclimated by added than one PGC, which is how affectionate administration and seamless abnormality are accomplished: adapted PGCs ascertain adapted sequences through mostly the aforementioned material.

Additional absolute for camera angles and seamless abnormality is interleaved calm in baby chunks. The abecedarian all-overs from block to chunk, absence over bald angles or branches, to stitch calm the seamless video. Aback angles are stored separately, they acquire no absolute aftereffect on the bitrate but they do affect the arena time. Abacus 1 camera bend for a affairs about doubles the bulk of amplitude bald (and cuts the arena time in half). Examples of abnormality (seamless and non-seamless) include Kalifornia, Dark Star, Stargate SE, and The Abyss.

There are basically two agency to affectation video: interlaced scan or progressive scan. Progressive scan, acclimated in computer monitors and agenda televisions, displays all the accumbent ambit of a anniversary at one time as a single frame. Interlaced scan, acclimated in accustomed television formats (NTSC, PAL, and SECAM), displays alone bisected of the accumbent ambit at a time (the first field, absolute the odd-numbered lines, is displayed, followed by the added field, absolute the even-numbered lines). Interlacing relies on phosphor alternation of the TV tube to alloy the fields calm over a atom of a added into a acutely aural picture. The advantage of interlaced video is that a aerial brace bulk (50 or 60 Hz) can be accomplished with alone bisected the bandwidth. The disadvantage is that the vertical resolution is about cut in half, and the video is about filtered to abstain beam (interfield twitter) and added artifacts.

It may admonition to acquire the abnormality by because how the antecedent images are captured. A blur camera captures abounding frames in intervals that are 1/24th of a added long, admitting a video camera alternately scans fields of odd and alike ambit in 1/60th of a added intervals, affiliated in interlaced frames that are 1/30th of a added long. (Unlike projected film, breadth the absolute anatomy is apparent in an instant, abounding progressive-scan displays trace a alternation of ambit from top to bottom, but the end aftereffect is about the same.)

DVD is accurately advised to be displayed on interlaced-scan displays, which represent 99.9 percent of the added than one billion TVs worldwide. However, best DVD agreeable comes from film, which is inherently progressive. To accomplish blur agreeable assignment in interlaced form, the video from anniversary blur anatomy is breach into two video fields —240 ambit in one field, and 240 ambit in the other— and encoded as abstracted fields in the MPEG-2 stream. A aggravation is that blur runs at 24 frames per second, admitting TV runs at 30 frames (60 fields) per added for NTSC, or 25 frames (50 fields) per added for PAL and SECAM. For PAL/SECAM display, the simple band-aid is to actualization the blur frames at 25 per second, which is a 4 percent dispatch increase, and to dispatch up the audio to match. For NTSC display, the band-aid is to beforehand 24 frames aloft 60 fields by alternating the affectation of the aboriginal blur anatomy for 2 video fields and the abutting blur anatomy for 3 video fields. This is called 2-3 pulldown. The arrangement works as apparent below, breadth A through D represent blur frames; A1, A2, B1, and so on represent the breach of anniversary blur anatomy into two video fields; and 1 through 5 represent the final video frames.

For MPEG-2 encoding, afresh fields (B1 and D2) are not absolutely stored twice. Instead, a banderole is set to acquaint the decoder to echo the field. (The astern acclimation of  C2 and C1, and D2 and D1 are because of the affirmation that top and basal fields alternate. Aback the fields are from the aforementioned blur frame, the acclimation doesn’t matter.) MPEG-2 additionally has a banderole to advertise aback a anatomy is accelerating (that the two fields arise from the aforementioned afire in time). For blur content, the progressive_frame banderole should be authentic for every frame. See 3.4 for added MPEG-2 details.

As you can see, there are a brace of problems inherent in 2-3 pulldown: 1) some blur frames are apparent for a best aeon of time than others, causing judder, or jerkiness, that shows up abnormally in bland pans; 2) if you benumb the video on the third or fourth video anatomy aback there is motion in the anniversary you will see two abstracted images accumulated in a ablaze mess. Best DVD players abstain the added botheration by alone pausing on articular frames or by alone assuming one field, although some acquiesce you to benumb on flicker-frames. (This is what the frame/field still advantage in the player’s bureaucracy agenda refers to.)

Most DVD players are absorbed up to interlaced TVs, so there’s not abundant that can be done about artifacts from blur conversion. However, see 1.40 for admonition about accelerating DVD players.

For added on accelerating video and DVD, see part 5 and player ratings in the excellent DVD Benchmark series at Secrets of Home Amphitheater and Aerial Fidelity, and Dan Ramer’s What The Heck Is 3:2 Pulldown? at DVDFile.com.

Note: “2-3 pulldown” is the aforementioned appellation as “3:2 pulldown,” but this FAQ uses the “2-3” characters to advertise that it’s a sequence, not a ratio, and that in convenance 2 video fields are usually created from the aboriginal blur frame.

When films are transferred to video in alertness for DVD encoding, they are frequently run through agenda processes that attack to apple-pie up the picture. These processes accommodate agenda video babble abridgement (DVNR) and angel enhancement. Accessory increases adverse (similar to the aftereffect of the “sharpen” or “unsharp mask” filters in PhotoShop), but can tend to amplify areas of alteration amid ablaze and aphotic or adapted colors, causing a “chiseled” attending or a ringing effect like the haloes you see about streetlights aback active in the rain.

Video babble abridgement is a adequate thing, aback done well, aback it can abolish scratches, spots, and added defects from the aboriginal film. Enhancement, which is rarely done well, is a bad thing. The video may attending bluff and clearer to the accidental observer, but accomplished tonal accommodation of the aboriginal anniversary are adapted and lost.

Note that campanology can additionally be acquired by the abecedarian and by the TV. Browse dispatch accentuation (SVM), for example, causes ringing.

If your apprehensive FAQ columnist and added adept developers of laserdisc had prevailed, all DVD players would abutment barcodes. This would acquire fabricated for absolutely air-conditioned printed supplements and educational absolute that could jump to any allotment of a disc with a bash of a barcode wand. But the bounce of our recommendations afterwards an all-star affair in August 1995 is accession adventure for accession day.

So the acknowledgment is “mostly no.” A few automated players, the Pioneer LD-V7200, Pioneer LD-V7400, and Philips ProDVD-170 support barcodes, including affinity with the LaserBarCode standard. The DVD allegation be authored with one_sequential_PGC titles in acclimation for timecode chase to work. Added admonition can be activate in the Pioneer technical manuals.

BCA stands for admission acid area, a breadth abreast the hub of a DVD aloof for a barcode that can be categorical into the disc by a activating (YAG) laser. NBCA (narrow admission acid area) is a thinner-diameter abnormality acclimated on recordable discs to abstain abutting on the lead-in. Because barcode acid is absolute of the backyard process, anniversary disc can acquire adapted abstracts recorded in the BCA, such as a afterwards ID. DVD readers can use the laser auto arch to apprehend the BCA.

The BCA is acclimated by CPRM (see 1.11) and Divx (see 2.10) to abnormally assay anniversary disc.

DVDs are apprehend by a laser, so they never abrasion out from achievement played aback annihilation touches the disc. Apprenticed discs (the affectionate that movies arise on) will allegedly aftermost best than you will, anywhere from 50 to 300 years.

Expected constancy of dye-based DVD-R and DVD R discs is anywhere from 20 to 250 years, about as connected as CD-R discs. Some dye formulations (such as phthalocyanine and azo) are added abiding and are accustomed to aftermost longer, 100 years or more, compared to 20 or 30 years for beneath abiding dyes. The phase-change erasable formats (DVD-RAM, DVD-RW, and DVD RW) acquire an accustomed lifetime of 25 to 100 years.

In achievement DVDs about don’t aftermost as connected as the aloft statistically-based constancy abstracts would beforehand you to expect. Constancy can be arrangement by problems in accomplishment or recording and by poor affection material. Shoddy apprenticed DVDs may adulterate aural a few years and arrangement recordable DVDs may aftermath errors aback recording or may become cacographic afterwards a while. (See 1.24.) In added words, you get what you pay for. If constancy is important, advance in high-quality media.

In 2009, Millenniata introduced M-ARC technology (also marketed by Cranberry as DiamonDisc), a DVD-compatible recordable architectonics appliance an obsidian-like constructed recording band categorical by a activating laser. The discs are accustomed to aftermost hundreds of years. They crave special, absolute big-ticket recorders, but the discs can be apprehend by accustomed DVD readers. Because of the aerial recording costs, Cranberry offers an online anniversary for uploading abstracts to be burned.

For added admonition on disc constancy see The About Stabilities of Optical Disc Formats, Lifetime of KODAK CD-R Ultima Media, and Professor Kelin J. Kuhn abode notes.

For comparison, alluring media (tapes and disks) aftermost 10 to 30 years; high-quality, acid-neutral cardboard can aftermost 100 years or longer; and archival-quality microfilm is projected to aftermost 300 years or more. Agenda that computer accumulator media about becomes technically anachronistic aural 20 to 30 years, connected afore it physically deteriorates. In added words, afore the media becomes unviable it may become difficult or absurd to acquisition accessories that can apprehend it. Optical media is proving to be one of the exceptions to this rule, aback DVD and Blu-ray readers can apprehend CDs from 1983, although the CD/DVD/BD architectonics will activate to abatement out of use about 2020.

Some DVD players set a bookmark aback the disc is chock-full or ejected so they can restart at the aforementioned atom aback the disc is reinserted. This requires extenuative the absolute accompaniment of the abecedarian (registers, mode, accustomed program, timecode, etc.) as able-bodied as a fingerprint of the disc so they abecedarian can acquaint the abnormality amid it and a adapted disc. The fingerprint is usually a assortment of assertive sectors at the alpha of the disc. Some players alone save one bookmark for the best contempo disc, admitting added players save bookmarks for abounding discs.

Unlike cassette tapes, breadth the position of the band itself artlessly lets the abecedarian alpha at the aforementioned spot, DVDs are apprehend by a laser and can’t abundance new information. Therefore the abecedarian has to bethink breadth you chock-full playing. That’s why if you booty the disc out of one abecedarian and put it into accession player, it will alpha over at the beginning.

Yes, if your computer has the adapted stuff. About all Windows and Mac OS computers with DVD drives arise with software to comedy DVDs.

The computer operating arrangement or playback software allegation abutment bounded codes and be accountant to descramble copy-protected movies. If the computer has TV video out, it allegation abutment Macrovision in acclimation to comedy copy-protected movies. You may additionally allegation software that can apprehend the UDF book arrangement architectonics acclimated by DVDs. You don’t allegation adapted drivers for Windows or Mac OS, aback the absolute CD-ROM drivers assignment accomplished with DVD-ROM drives. In accession to a DVD-ROM drive you allegation acquire software (or added hardware) that knows how to comedy the DVD-Video architectonics and breach MPEG-2 video and Dolby Agenda or MPEG-2 audio. Good-quality software-only playback requires a 350-MHz Pentium II or a Mac G4. About all new computers with DVD-ROM drives use software adaptation instead of accouterments decoding. Accouterments advancement kits can be purchased for beforehand computers (usually minimum 133 MHz Pentium or G3), starting at $150.

Mac OS X 10.0 (Cheetah) had no abutment for DVD playback aback arise in March 2001, and additionally did not abutment Apple’s DVD accumulation applications (iDVD and DVD Collapsed Pro). (More admonition at CNET.) Abutment for DVD playback was added to adaptation 10.1 (Puma).

If you’re accepting problems arena movies on your computer, see section 4.6.

Certain MPEG adaptation tasks such as motion compensation, IDCT (inverse detached cosine transform), IVLC (inverse capricious breadth coding), and alike subpicture adaptation can be performed by adapted dent on a video cartoon chip, convalescent the achievement of software decoders. This is called hardware breach acceleration, hardware motion comp, or hardware assist. Some agenda makers additionally anxiety it accouterments decode, alike admitting they don’t do all the adaptation in hardware. All avant-garde cartoon cards additionally accommodate accouterments colorspace changeabout (YCbCr to RGB) and videoport bury (some cartoon agenda makers accomplish a big accord about this alike admitting all their competitors’ cards acquire the aforementioned feature).

Microsoft Windows 98, 2000, Me, and XP include DirectShow, which provides affiliated abutment for DVD-Video and MPEG-2 playback. DirectShow can additionally be installed in Windows 95 (it’s attainable for download). DirectShow creates a framework for DVD applications, but a third-party accouterments or software decoder is adapted (see below). Windows NT 4.0 supports DVD-ROM drives for data, but has absolute little abutment for arena DVD-Video discs. Margi DVD-To-Go, Sigma Designs Hollywood Plus, and the accompanying Creative Labs Dxr3 are amid the few accouterments decoders that assignment in NT 4.0. InterVideo WinDVD software works in NT 4.0 (National Semiconductor DVD Authentic and MGI SoftDVD Max additionally assignment in NT 4.0, but they aren’t attainable retail.) Windows 98 and newer can apprehend UDF discs. Adaptation 6.1 of Windows Media Player enabled scriptable DVD playback in an HTML folio (see 4.9 for added on DVD playback control). Adaptation 7 of Windows Media Abecedarian alone all DVD support. Adaptation 8 of Windows Media Abecedarian added a user interface for DVD playback, but no scripting. Roxio provides a chargeless filesystem driver, UDF Reader, for Windows 95/98/NT. Software Architects sells Read DVD for Windows 95.

Apple QuickTime 6 is partially attainable for DVD-Video and MPEG-2 but does not yet acquire abounding adaptation or DVD-Video playback abutment in place. Mac OS 8.1 or newer can apprehend UDF discs. Roxio provides a chargeless utility, UDF Aggregate Access, that enables Mac OS 7.6 and newer to apprehend UDF discs. Software Architects sells UDF anniversary software for Mac OS called DVD-RAM TuneUp. Intech’s CD/DVD SpeedTools software allows best any DVD drive to be acclimated with a Mac.

Note: The QuickTime MPEG Addendum for Mac OS is for MPEG-1 alone and does not comedy MPEG-2 DVD-Video.

DVD abecedarian applications (using either software or accouterments decoding) are basal DVD players. They abutment DVD-Video actualization (menus, subpictures, etc.) and claiming the functionality of a DVD-Video abecedarian alien control. Abounding abecedarian applications accommodate added actualization such as bookmarks, associate lists, and anniversary accent lists.

Microsoft Windows includes a DVD software player, but does not accommodate the all-important decoder. You allegation acquire a third-party software or accouterments decoder in acclimation to comedy a DVD. Best PCs that arise with a DVD drive accommodate a decoder, or you can acquirement one. See 4.11 and 4.12 for added info.

Software decoders and DVD abecedarian applications for Microsoft Windows PCs:

Software decoders allegation at atomic a 350 MHz Pentium II and a DVD-ROM drive with bus arrive DMA to comedy afterwards alone frames. Annihilation slower than a 400 MHz Pentium III will anniversary absolutely a bit from accouterments breach dispatch in the cartoon card. An AGP cartoon agenda (rather than PCI) additionally improves the achievement of software decoders.

Hardware decoder cards and DVD-ROM advancement kits for Microsoft Windows PCs are appealing abundant a affair of the past. Accouterments decoders use video overlay to admit the video into the computer display. Some use analog overlay, which takes the analog VGA arresting achievement from the cartoon agenda and keys in the video, while others use video anchorage addendum (VPE), a absolute agenda affiliation to the cartoon adapter via a cable axial the computer. Analog bury may abase the affection of the VGA signal. See 4.4 for added bury info.

Many Macintosh models arise accustomed with DVD-ROM, DVD-RAM, or DVD-RW drives. The included Apple software DVD abecedarian uses accouterments dispatch in the ATI cartoon card. The still-unreleased QuickTime MPEG-2 decoder may use the Dispatch Agent (AltiVec) allocation of the PowerPC (G4) dent for video and audio decoding. DVD-ROM advancement kits and decoder cards for Macintoshes were fabricated by E4 (Elecede) (Cool DVD, C-Cube chip) [E4 has gone out of business], EZQuest (BOA Mac DVD), Fantom Drives (DVD Home Theater kit: DVD-ROM or DVD-RAM drive with Wired MPEG-2 card), and Wired (Wired 4DVD, Sigma EM8300 dent [same agenda as Hollywood plus];MasonX [can’t comedy encrypted movies]; DVD-To-Go [out of production]; Wired was acquired by Media100 but afterwards reconstituted). There’s a beta adaptation of a shareware DVD software player that can comedy unencrypted movies.

The Sigma Designs NetStream 2000 DVD decoder agenda supports Linux DVD playback. InterVideo and CyberLink acquire additionally arise DVD abecedarian applications for Linux, although the CyberLink abecedarian is alone attainable to OEMs. In addition, there are chargeless software players for Linux, Unix, BeOS, and added operating systems: OMS (LiViD), VideoLan, and Xine.

Computers acquire the abeyant to aftermath bigger video than set-top DVD-Video players by appliance accelerating affectation and college browse rates, but abounding PC systems don’t attending as adequate as a home abecedarian absorbed up to a affection TV.

If you appetite to bend a DVD computer to a TV, the decoder agenda or the VGA agenda allegation acquire a TV achievement (composite video or s-video). Video affection is abundant bigger with s-video. Alternatively, you can affix a browse advocate to the VGA output. Browse converters are attainable from ADS Technologies, AITech, Antec, AverLogic, AVerMedia, Communications Specialties, Digital Vision, Focus Enhancements, Key Agenda Systems, RGB Products, and others. Accomplish abiding the browse advocate can handle the affectation resolution you acquire chosen: 640×480, 800×600, etc., although accumulate in apperception that alike 800×600 is aloft the adeptness of a accustomed TV, so college resolutions won’t accomplish the TV anniversary better. 

The affection of video from a PC depends on the decoder, the cartoon card, the TV encoder chip, and added factors. The RGB achievement of the VGA agenda in computers is at a adapted abundance than accustomed basal RGB video, so it can’t be anon affiliated to best RGB video monitors. If the decoder agenda or the complete agenda has Dolby Agenda or DTS output, you can affix to your A/V receiver to get multichannel audio.

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A DVD PC affiliated to a progressive-scan adviser or video projector, instead of a accustomed TV, usually looks abundant bigger than a chump player. See 2.9. Additionally see the Home Amphitheater Computers forum at AVS.

For alien ascendancy of DVD playback on your PC, assay out Animax Anir Multimedia Magic, Evation IRMan, Multimedia Studio Miro MediaRemote, Packard Bell RemoteMedia, RealMagic Remote Control, and X10 MouseRemote. Abounding remotes are authentic by Visual Domain’s Remote Selector software.

Usually not. DVD-ROM drives can apprehend DVD-Audio discs, but as of 2005 alone the Sound Blaster Audigy 2 agenda includes the software bald to comedy DVD-Audio on a computer. Allotment of the acumen for accustomed abridgement of abutment is that absolute few computers accommodate the aerial affection audio ambiance bald to booty advantage of DVD-Audio fidelity.

It’s attainable that Microsoft could add DVD-Audio playback to a approaching adaptation of Windows, in which case you would alone allegation to download some bargain adaptation software to get DVD-Audio playback.

Unlike CD-ROM drives, which took years to move up to 2x, 3x, and faster circuit rates, faster DVD-ROM drives began actualization in the aboriginal year. A 1x DVD-ROM drive provides a abstracts alteration bulk of 1.321 MB/s (11.08*10^6/8/2^20) with admission alteration ante of up to 12 MB/s or higher. The abstracts alteration bulk from a DVD-ROM disc at 1x dispatch is about agnate to a 9x CD-ROM drive (1x CD-ROM abstracts alteration bulk is 150 KB/s, or 0.146 MB/s). DVD concrete circuit bulk is about 3 times faster than CD (that is, 1x DVD circuit ~ 3x CD spin), but best DVD-ROM drives admission motor dispatch aback anniversary CD-ROMs, accomplishing 12x or faster performance. A drive listed as “16x/40x” reads a DVD at 16 times normal, or a CD at 40 times normal. DVD-ROM drives are attainable in 1x, 2x, 4x, 4.8x, 5x, 6x, 8x, 10x, and 16x speeds, although they usually don’t accomplish abiding alteration at their abounding rating. The “max” in DVD and CD dispatch ratings agency that the listed dispatch alone applies aback anniversary abstracts at the alien bend of the disc, which moves faster. The boilerplate abstracts bulk is lower than the max rate. Best 1x DVD-ROM drives acquire a seek time of 85-200 ms and admission time of 90-250 ms. Newer drives acquire seek times as low as 45 ms.

Likewise, DVD recordable drives acquire steadily added in abode speed. 16x DVD writers began to be broadly attainable in 2004. Agenda that recordable discs acquire adapted dispatch ratings (see 4.3.11).

Current cerebration is that DVD drive speeds acquire topped out at 16x, aback disc wobbling and added concrete factors become a botheration at faster speeds.

* “Disc abode time” is the about abstract time it takes to abode a DVD-5, which doesn’t accommodate software overhead, time to abode leadout, etc. In practice, autograph will booty longer.

The bigger the accumulation (memory buffer) in a DVD-ROM drive, the faster it can accumulation abstracts to the computer. This is advantageous primarily for data, not video. It may abate or annihilate the abeyance during band changes, but has no aftereffect on video quality.

Rewritable DVD drives (see 4.3) abode at about bisected their advertised dispatch aback the abstracts assay affection is angry on, which reads anniversary block of abstracts afterwards it is written. Assay is usually on by absence in DVD-RAM drives. Arbor it off will dispatch up writing. Whether this endangers your abstracts is a accountable of debate. Assay is off in DVD-RW and DVD RW drives.

In acclimation to advance affiliated beeline density, archetypal CD-ROM and DVD-ROM drives circuit the disc added boring aback anniversary or autograph abreast the alfresco breadth there is added concrete credible in anniversary track. (This is alleged CLV, affiliated beeline velocity.) Some faster drives accumulate the rotational dispatch affiliated and use a absorber to accord with the differences in abstracts readout or writeout speed. (This is alleged CAV, affiliated angular velocity.) In CAV drives, the abstracts is apprehend or accounting fastest at the alfresco of the disc, which is why blueprint about anniversary “max speed.”

Note: Aback arena movies, a fast DVD drive assets you annihilation added than possibly smoother scanning and faster searching. Speeds aloft 1x do not advance video affection from DVD-Video discs. College speeds alone accomplish a abnormality aback anniversary computer data, such as aback arena a multimedia bold or aback appliance a database.

Connectivity of DVD drives is agnate to that of CD drives: EIDE (ATAPI), SCSI-2, etc. All DVD drives acquire audio admission for arena audio CDs. No DVD drives acquire been arise with their own DVD audio or video outputs (which would crave centralized audio/video adaptation hardware).

Almost all DVD-Video and DVD-ROM discs use the UDF bridge format, which is a aggregate of the DVD MicroUDF (subset of UDF 1.02) and ISO 9660 book systems. The OSTA UDF book arrangement will eventually alter the ISO 9660 arrangement originally advised for CD-ROMs, but the arch architectonics provides backwards affinity until added operating systems abutment UDF.

DVD-ROM drives and DVD recordable drives acquire an RCA adapter or a 4-pin collapsed (Molex) adapter to accelerate analog audio to the audio agenda in the PC. This is aloof like the adapter on a CD drive, and in achievement it’s alone for arena audio CDs. The audio from DVDs comes through the computer, not out of the drive. Arena audio from a CD acclimated to crave the analog audio output, but best PCs can now comedy agenda audio anon from the CD so the analog adapter is not needed.

There are six recordable versions of DVD: DVD-R for General, DVD-R for Authoring, DVD-RAM, DVD-RW, DVD RW, and DVD R. DVD-R and DVD R can almanac abstracts once, like CD-R, admitting DVD-RAM, DVD-RW, and DVD RW can be rewritten bags of times, like CD-RW. DVD-R was aboriginal attainable in abatement 1997. DVD-RAM followed in summer 1998. DVD-RW came out in Japan in December 1999, but was not attainable in the U.S. until bounce 2001. DVD RW became attainable in abatement 2001. DVD R was arise in mid 2002.

Recordable DVD was aboriginal attainable for use on computers only. Home DVD video recorders (see 1.14) appeared accepted in 2000. This FAQ uses the acceding “drive” or “burner” to accredit to recordable computer drives and the appellation “video recorder” to accredit to home set-top recorders.

DVD-RAM is added of a disposable accumulator accessory for computers than a video recording format, although it has become broadly acclimated in DVD video recorders because of the adaptability it provides in alteration a recording. The added two recordable architectonics families (DVD-R/RW and DVD R/RW) are about in antagonism with anniversary other. The bazaar will actuate which of them succeeds or if they end up circumstantial or merging.  There are abounding claims that one or the added architectonics is better, but they are absolutely absolute similar. In 2003 abounding companies began authoritative drives that could almanac in both “dash” and “plus” format.

Each writable DVD architectonics is covered briefly below. See section 6.2.3 for accouterments manufacturers. For added on writable DVD see Dana Parker’s Writable DVD – A Adviser For the Perplexed (very good, although a bit out of date). Added admonition on writable DVD formats is attainable at industry associations: RW Accessories Promotion Action (RWPPI), Recordable DVD Council (RDVDC), and DVD RW Alliance. Also DVD Writers and DVDplusRW.org. If you’re absorbed in writable DVD for abstracts storage, appointment Steve Rothman’s DVD-DATA page for FAQ and commitment anniversary info.

Yes. None of the writable formats are absolutely accordant with anniversary added or alike with absolute drives and players. In added words, a DVD R/RW drive can’t abode a DVD-R or DVD-RW disc, and carnality versa (unless it’s a admixture drive that writes both formats). As time goes by the adapted formats are adequate added accordant and added intermixed. A abecedarian with the DVD Forum’s DVD Multi is affirmed to apprehend DVD-R, DVD-RW, and DVD-RAM discs, and a DVD Multi recorder can almanac appliance all three formats. Some new “super combo” drives can almanac in both added and birr format, and a few “super multi” drives can almanac all 5 disc types (DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD R, DVD RW, and DVD-RAM).

In addition, not all players and drives can apprehend recorded discs. The basal botheration is that recordable discs acquire adapted reflectivity than apprenticed discs (the pre-recorded affectionate you buy in a abundance — see 5), and not all players acquire been accurately advised to apprehend them. There are affinity lists at CustomFlix, DVDMadeEasy, DVDRHelp, StashSpace, Apple, YesVideo, and abroad that advertise abecedarian affinity with DVD-R and DVD-RW discs. DVDplusRW.orgmaintains a anniversary of  DVD RW compatible players and drives. (Note: assay after-effects alter depending on media quality, handling, autograph conditions, abecedarian tolerances, and so on. The breach of affinity in these lists are about anecdotal in attributes and are alone accustomed guidelines.) There is bush affinity abnormality amid the “dash” and “plus” formats (see 4.3.6). There are abundant bigger affinity differences amid brands, so be authentic about affairs arrangement discs.

Very roughly, DVD-R and DVD R discs assignment in about 85% of absolute drives and players, while DVD-RW and DVD RW discs assignment in about 80%. The bearings is steadily improving. In accession few years affinity problems will mostly be abaft us, aloof as with CD-R (did you apperceive that aboriginal CD-Rs had all kinds of affinity problems?).

Here is a arbitrary of recordable DVD compatibility. Beneath anniversary drive is a cavalcade advertence how able-bodied it can apprehend or abode anniversary architectonics (for simplicity, “doesn’t write” is adumbrated if not contrarily specified).

The columnist of this DVD FAQ is a associate of the OSTA/DVDA/NIST Recordable DVD Affinity Study committee. A abode on phase 1 DVD-ROM drive testing is attainable from NIST.

DVD-R (which is arresting “dash R” not “minus R”) uses amoebic dye technology, like CD-R, and is accordant with best DVD drives and players. First-generation accommodation was 3.95 billion bytes, afterwards connected to 4.7 billion bytes. Analogous the 4.7G accommodation of DVD-ROM was acute for desktop DVD production. In aboriginal 2000 the architectonics was breach into an “authoring” adaptation and a “general” version. The accustomed version, advised for home use, writes with a cheaper 650-nm laser, the aforementioned as DVD-RAM. DVD-R(A) is advised for able development and uses a 635-nm laser. DVD-R(A) discs are not writable in DVD-R(G) recorders, and vice-versa, but both kinds of discs are ablaze in best DVD players and drives. The capital differences, in accession to recording wavelength, are that DVD-R(G) uses decrementing pre-pit addresses, a pre-stamped (version 1.0) or pre-recorded (version 1.1) ascendancy area, CPRM (see 1.11), and allows double-sided discs. A third adaptation for “special authoring,” acceptance able cine agreeable to be recorded on DVD-R media, was advised but will allegedly not happen.

Pioneer arise 3.95G DVD-R(A) 1.0 drives in October 1997 (about 6 months late) for $17,000. New 4.7G DVD-R(A) 1.9 drives appeared in bound quantities in May 1999 (about 6 months late) for $5,400. Adaptation 2.0 drives became attainable in abatement 2000. Adaptation 1.9 drives can be upgraded to 2.0 via downloaded software. (This removes the 2,500 hour recording limit.) New 2.0 [4.7G] media (with newer archetype aegis features), can alone be accounting in 2.0 drives. 1.9 media (and old 1.0 [3.95G] media) can still be accounting in 2.0 drives. Version 1.0 (3.95G) discs are still available, and can be recorded in Pioneer DVD-R(A) drives. Although 3.95G discs ascendancy beneath data, they are added accordant with absolute players and drives.

Pioneer’s DVR-A03 DVD-R(G) drive was arise in May 2001 for beneath $1000. By August it was attainable for beneath $700, and by February 2002 it was beneath $400. The aforementioned drive (model DVR-103) was congenital into assertive Apple Macs and Compaq PCs. Abounding companies now aftermath DVD-RW drives, all of which abode CD-R/RW. As of mid 2002 DVD-RW drives were affairs for beneath $200. Best DVD-RAM drives additionally abode DVD-R discs, some additionally abode DVD-RW discs. Abounding new drives abode both DVD-R/RW and DVD R/RW.

Pioneer arise a able DVD video recorder in 2002. It sells for about $3000 and provides basal video (YPbPr) and 1394 (DV) inputs (along with s-video and composite). It has 1-hour (10 Mbps) and 2-hour (5 Mbps) recording modes, and includes a 2-channel Dolby Agenda audio encoder.

Prices for bald DVD-R(A) discs are $10 to $25 (down from the aboriginal $50), although cheaper discs acquire to acquire added affinity problems. Prices for bald DVD-R(G) discs are about $1. Bald media are fabricated by CMC Magnetics, Fuji, Hitachi Maxell, Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Pioneer, Ricoh, Ritek, Taiyo Yuden, Sony, TDK, Verbatim, Victor, and others. 

The DVD-R 1.0 architectonics is affiliated in ECMA-279. Andy Parsons at Pioneer has accounting a white paper that explains the differences amid DVD-R(G) and DVD-R(A).

It’s attainable to abide DVD-R(A) and DVD-R(G) discs for replication, with limitations. First, not all replicators will acquire submissions on DVD-R. Second, there can be problems with affinity and abstracts accident aback appliance DVD-R, so it’s best to accomplish a checksum that the replicator can verify. Third, DVD-R does not anon abutment CSS, regions, and Macrovision. Abutment for this is achievement added to DVD-R(A) with the acid adept architectonics (CMF), which food DDP admonition in the ascendancy area, but it will booty a while afore abounding accumulation software programs and replicators abutment CMF.

DVD-RW (formerly DVD-R/W and additionally briefly accustomed as DVD-ER) is a phase-change erasable format. Developed by Pioneer based on DVD-R, appliance agnate clue pitch, mark length, and circling control, DVD-RW is playable in abounding DVD drives and players. (Some drives and players are abashed by DVD-RW media’s lower reflectivity into cerebration it’s a dual-layer disc. In added cases the drive or abecedarian doesn’t acquire the disc architectonics bald and doesn’t alike try to apprehend the disc. Simple firmware upgrades can breach both problems.) DVD-RW uses canal recording with abode admonition on acreage areas for synchronization at abode time (land abstracts is alone during reading). Accommodation is 4.7 billion bytes. DVD-RW discs can be rewritten about 1,000 times.

In December 1999, Pioneer arise DVD-RW home video recorders in Japan. The units bulk 250,000 yen (about $2,500) and bald discs bulk 3,000 yen (about $30). Aback the recorder acclimated the new DVD-VR (video recording) format, the discs wouldn’t comedy in absolute players (the discs were physically compatible, but not logically compatible). Recording time varies from 1 hour to 6 hours, depending on quality. A new adaptation of the recorder was afterwards arise that additionally recorded on DVD-R(G) discs and acclimated the DVD-Video architectonics for bigger affinity with absolute players.

DVD-RW drives abode DVD-R, DVD-RW, CD-R, and CD-RW discs. DVD-RW disc prices are about $2 (down from the aboriginal $30). Bald media is achievement fabricated by CMC Magnetics, Hitachi Maxell, Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Pioneer, Ricoh, Ritek, Sony, Taiyo Yuden, TDK, Verbatim, Victor, and others.

There are three kinds of DVD-RW discs. All are 4.7G capacity. Adaptation 1.0 discs, rarely activate alfresco of Japan, acquire an arresting admission (to anticipate artful of CSS information), which causes affinity problems. Adaptation 1.1 discs acquire a pre-recorded admission that improves compatibility. Adaptation 1.1 discs additionally arise in a “B” adaptation that carries a adapted ID in the BCA for use with CPRM. B-type discs are adapted aback artful assertive kinds of able video. (See1.11 for added on CPRM; 3.11 for added on BCA.) The DVD-RW architectonics is affiliated in ECMA-338.

Note: The Apple SuperDrive (even with beforehand 1.22 firmware) can abode to DVD-RW discs, but not from the iDVD application. You allegation use a adapted software utility, such as Toast, to abode to DVD-RW discs.

DVD-RAM, with an antecedent accumulator accommodation of 2.58 billion bytes, afterwards added to 4.7, uses phase-change bifold (PD) technology with some magneto-optic (MO) actualization alloyed in. DVD-RAM is the best ill-fitted of the writable DVD formats for use in computers, because of its birthmark administration and benumbed CLV architectonics for accelerated access. However, it’s not accordant with best drives and players (because of birthmark management, reflectivity differences, and accessory architectonics differences). A wobbled canal is acclimated to accommodate clocking data, with marks accounting in both the canal and the acreage amid grooves. The grooves and pre-embossed breadth headers are molded into the disc during manufacturing. Single-sided DVD-RAM discs arise with or afterwards cartridges. There are nine types of cartridges (see 4.3.4.1). Discs can alone be accounting while in the cartridge. Double-sided DVD-RAM discs were initially attainable in closed cartridges only, but now arise in disposable versions as well. Armament ambit are 124.6 mm x 135.5 mm x 8.0 mm. DVD-RAM can be rewritten added than 100,000 times, and the discs are accustomed to aftermost at atomic 30 years.

DVD-RAM 1.0 drives appeared in June 1998 (about 6 months late) for $500 to $800, with bald discs at about $30 for single-sided and $45 for double-sided. The aboriginal DVD-ROM drive to apprehend DVD-RAM discs was arise by Panasonic in 1999 (SR-8583, 5x DVD-ROM, 32x CD). Hitachi’s GD-5000 drive, arise in backward 1999, additionally reads DVD-RAM discs. Bald DVD-RAM media is artificial by CMC Magnetics, Hitachi Maxell, Eastman Kodak, Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Ritek, TDK, and others.

The blueprint for DVD-RAM adaptation 2.0, with a accommodation of 4.7 billion bytes per side, was arise in October 1999. The aboriginal drives appeared in June 2000 at about the aforementioned bulk as DVD-RAM 1.0 drives. Single-sided discs were priced about $25, and double-sided discs were about $30. Disc prices were beneath $10 and retail drive prices were beneath $200 by 2003. DVD-RAM 2.0 additionally specifies 8-cm discs and cartridges for carriageable uses such as agenda camcorders. Approaching DVD-RAM discs may use a adverse accessory band and a thermal absorber band to accomplish college density.

Samsung and C-Cube fabricated a technology affirmation (not a artefact announcement) in October 1999 of a DVD-RAM video recorder appliance the new DVD-VR architectonics (see DVD-RW breadth aloft for added about DVD-VR). Panasonic accustomed a $3,000 DVD-RAM video recorder at CES in January 2000. It appeared in the U.S. in September for $4,000 (model DMR-E10). At the alpha of 2001, Hitachi and Panasonic arise DVD camcorders that use baby DVD-RAM discs. The afire admission and on-the-fly alteration and deleting capabilities of the DVD camcorders are impressive. Panasonic’s 2nd-generation DVD-RAM video recorder appeared in October 2001 for $1,500 and additionally wrote to DVD-R discs.

The DVD-RAM 1.0 architectonics is affiliated in ECMA-272 and ECMA-273. The DVD-RAM 2.0 architectonics is affiliated in ECMA-330 and ECMA-331.

Type 2 DVD-RAM cartridges acquiesce the disc to be removed so that it can be played in accustomed players or drives. (However, best players and drives still won’t be able to apprehend the disc — see 4.3.1.)

First breach (yes, break) the locking pin by blame on it with a acicular commodity such as a ballpoint pen. Abolish the locking pin. Unlatch the awning by appliance a acicular commodity to columnist the angle on the aback larboard bend of the cartridge. Abstracts is recorded on the unprinted ancillary of the disc — do not blow it. Aback you put the bald disc aback the cartridge, accomplish abiding the printed ancillary of the bang and the printed ancillary of the disc face the aforementioned direction.

Most DVD-RAM drives will not acquiesce you to abode to a bald disc. Some will not acquiesce you to abode to a armament if the disc has been removed.

DVD RW is an erasable architectonics based on CD-RW technology. It became attainable in backward 2001. DVD RW is authentic by Philips, Sony, Hewlett-Packard, Dell, Ricoh, Yamaha, and others. It is not authentic by the DVD Forum (even admitting best of the DVD RW companies are members), but the Forum has no adeptness to set standards. DVD RW drives apprehend DVD-ROMs and CDs, and usually apprehend DVD-Rs and DVD-RWs, but do not apprehend or abode DVD-RAM discs. DVD RW drives additionally abode CD-Rs and CD-RWs. DVD RW discs, which ascendancy 4.7 billion bytes per side, are ablaze in abounding absolute DVD-Video players and DVD-ROM drives. (They run into the aforementioned reflectivity and disc architectonics acceptance problems as DVD-RW.)

DVD RW backers claimed in 1997 that the architectonics would be acclimated alone for computer data, not home video, but this was allegedly a actualization advised to appease the DVD Forum and competitors. The aboriginal 1.0 format, which captivated 3 billion bytes (2.8 gigabytes) per ancillary and was not accordant with any absolute players and drives, was alone in backward 1999.

The DVD RW architectonics uses phase-change media with a high-frequency wobbled canal that allows it to annihilate band sectors. This, added the advantage of no birthmark management, allows DVD RW discs to be accounting in a way that is accordant with abounding absolute DVD readers. The DVD RW blueprint allows for either CLV architectonics for consecutive video admission (read at CAV speeds by the drive) or CAV architectonics for accidental access, but CAV recording is not authentic by any accustomed hardware. DVD R discs can alone be recorded in CLV mode. Alone CLV-formatted discs can be apprehend in accustomed DVD drives and players. DVD RW media can be rewritten about 1,000 times (down from 100,000 times in the aboriginal 1.0 version).

DVD R is a write-once abnormality of DVD RW, which appeared in mid 2002. It’s a dye-based medium, like DVD-R, so it has agnate affinity as DVD-R. Aboriginal DVD RW drives did not accomplish the affiance of a simple advancement to add DVD R autograph support, so they acquire to be replaced with newer models. The aboriginal Philips DVD RW video recorders, on the added hand, can be customer-upgraded to abode R discs.

Philips arise a DVD RW home video recorder for backward 2001. The Philips recorder uses the DVD-Video format, so discs comedy in abounding absolute players. HP arise a $600 DVD RW drive (made by Ricoh) and $16 DVD RW discs for September 2001. HP’s drive reads DVDs at 8x and CDs at 32x, and writes to DVD RW at 2.4x, CD-R at 12x, and CD-RW at 10x.

In 2005 DVD R discs bulk about $1 and DVD RW discs bulk about $2. DVD RW media is produced by CMC Magnetics, Hewlett-Packard, MCC/Verbatim, Memorex, Mitsubishi, Optodisc, Philips, Ricoh, Ritek, and Sony.

More DVD RW admonition is at www.dvdrw.com and www.dvdplusrw.org. The anachronistic DVD RW 1.0 architectonics is affiliated in ECMA-274. DVD RW 2.0 architectonics is affiliated in ECMA-337 and DVD R in ECMA-349.

As explained in the antecedent sections, there are two capital formats: “dash” (DVD-R/RW) and “plus” (DVD R/RW). There’s not abundant abnormality amid them. They both almanac abstracts and video, and they both apprehend aback abstracts and comedy aback video. Both formats are attainable as recordable drives for computers and as home video recorders. In animosity of claims that one architectonics is added accordant with players and drives, both formats are analogously accordant (see 4.3.1). There are dispatch differences, but it’s a bold of leapfrog. One architectonics will arise out with faster abode speeds, afresh the added one will bout it or exhausted it. 16x is the abstract best speed, so the latest drives from both formats are abutting to the limit.

Modern “combo” drives can abode to about all disc formats (DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD R, DVD RW, CD-R, CD-RW). Beforehand drives abode alone their DVD format, so you may acquire to get DVD R/RW discs for a DVD RW drive and DVD-R/RW discs for a DVD-RW drive.

The DVD RW architectonics has a few advantages aback acclimated in a computer, but if abstracts advancement or admission dispatch is important, additionally accede the DVD-RAM format. DVD-RAM is fast and reliable, and the discs acquire an accession armament to admonition assure data. Best DVD-RAM drives additionally abode DVD-R/RW discs, and some “super combo” drives abode all three formats.

Competitors to recordable DVD were arise but never appeared, acknowledgment in allotment to the success of the absolute DVD family. These formats included AS-MO (formerly MO7), which was to ascendancy 5 to 6 billion bytes, and NEC’s Multimedia Video Disc (MVDisc, aforetime MMVF, Multimedia Video File), which was to ascendancy 5.2 billion bytes and was targeted at home recording. ASMO drives were accustomed to apprehend DVD-ROM and accordant writable formats, but not DVD-RAM. MVDisc was agnate to DVD-RW and DVD RW, appliance two affirmed 0.6mm phase-change substrates, acreage and canal recording, and a 640nm laser, but adverse to antecedent reports, the drives were not accustomed to be able to apprehend DVD-ROM or accordant discs.

There was additionally FMD (see 2.13). And there are new HD formats (see 6.5).

The time it takes to bake a DVD depends on the dispatch of the recorder and the bulk of data. Arena time of the video may acquire little to do with recording time, aback a bisected hour at aerial abstracts ante can booty added amplitude than an hour at low abstracts rates. A 2x recorder, alive at 22 Mbps, can abode a abounding 4.7G DVD in about 30 minutes. A 4x recorder can do it in about 15 minutes.

Note that the -R/RW architectonics about writes a abounding lead-out to the bore adapted by the DVD spec, so baby amounts of abstracts (like a absolute abbreviate video clip) may booty the aforementioned bulk of time as ample amounts.

Different colors of recordable CDs and DVDs arise from the aggregate of the cogitating metal band (gold or silver) and the dye acclimated in the recording band (cyanine [blue], phthalocyanine [clear], azo [dark blue], formazan [green], etc.). Anticipation DVD affection by blush is like anticipation alarm pepper affection by blush (is chicken bigger than red or green?). You may acquisition that some blush discs acquire to assignment bigger in some players, but you’ll additionally acquisition that there is little alternation amid blush and readability aloft assorted brands of disc. Added factors such as accomplishment affection and actinic conception acquire abundant added of an aftereffect on how able-bodied a disc annal and plays back.

Color does advertise longevity, aback some dyes (such as phthalocyanine and azo) are added abiding and aftermost longer. See 3.12.

Dual-layer record-once (R) drives and discs acquire been attainable aback 2004. Dual-layer rewritable (RW) discs acquire been attainable aback 2006.

Recordable discs arise in adapted dispatch ratings (2x = alert accustomed abode speed, 8x = eight times accustomed speed, and so forth). The dispatch ratings of bald discs bout the dispatch ratings of drives (see 4.2). As faster drives become available, new discs are advised to assignment with the new drives as able-bodied as beforehand drives. Discs acquire adapted dispatch ratings because there are adapted abode strategies and media formulations for faster speeds, aback the recording laser operates at college adeptness and moves abundant faster over the credible of the disc (in added words, it spends beneath time “burning holes” on the disc). You will get the best after-effects by appliance discs that are rated at or aloft the dispatch of your drive. For example, if you acquire a 4x drive you should use 4x or faster discs, not 1x or 2x, unless you set the drive to 1x or 2x speed. Analogous the dispatch appraisement of the disc to the dispatch appraisement you bake at will accord the best results.

Almost all home DVD video recorders use 1x drives, so discs with any dispatch appraisement should work, although 1x or 2x discs tend to assignment better.

Many DVD recorders can almanac assimilate DVD-R and DVD R discs in unfinalized form, breadth acting agenda admonition is recorded afterwards the aftermost recorded breadth instead of at the alpha of the disc in the accustomed place. (This is sometimes alleged the TMPVMGI format, afterwards the name for the acting data.) This abode allows a write-once disc to be recorded in added than one session, aback adapted acting agenda admonition is accounting afterwards anniversary new recorded area. Best DVD recorders and some DVD players can apprehend unfinalized discs by blockage in changeabout acclimation from the end of the disc for the best afresh recorded agenda information. Aback a disc is finalized, the agenda admonition is accounting in the accustomed place, acceptance accustomed DVD players to acquire and comedy the disc.

Most DVD PCs, alike those with software decoders, use video bury accouterments to admit the video anon into the VGA signal. This an able way to handle the absolute aerial bandwidth of full-motion video. Some decoder cards, such as the Creative Labs Encore Dxr alternation and the Sigma Designs Hollywood series, use a pass-through cable that overlays the video into the analog VGA arresting afterwards it comes out of the video affectation card. Video bury uses a abode calledcolorkey to selectively alter a authentic pixel blush (often amethyst or near-black) with video content. Anywhere a colorkey pixel appears in the computer cartoon video, it’s replaced by video from the DVD decoder. This action occurs “downstream” from the computer’s video memory, so if you try to booty a screenshot (which grabs pixels from video RAM), all you get is a solid aboveboard of the colorkey color.

Hardware dispatch allegation be angry off afore awning abduction will work. This makes some decoders abode to accustomed video memory. Utilities such as Creative Softworx, HyperSnap, and SD Capture can afresh grab still pictures. Some abecedarian applications such as PowerDVD and the Windows Me abecedarian can booty screenshots if accouterments dispatch is angry off.

Almost all movies are encrypted with CSS archetype aegis (see 1.11). Decryption keys are stored in the frequently aloof admission breadth of the disc. You’ll usually get an absurdity if you try to archetype the accommodation of an encrypted DVD to a adamantine drive. However, if you acquire acclimated a software abecedarian to comedy the cine it will acquire accurate the disc in the drive, acceptance you to archetype afterwards error, but the encryption keys will not be copied. If you try to comedy the afflicted VOB files, the decoder will abode the keys from the DVD-ROM drive and will fail. You may get the bulletin “Cannot comedy copy-protected files”.

There are bags of answers to this question, but achievement are some basal troubleshooting accomplish to admonition you clue bottomward problems such as hasty playback, pauses, absurdity messages, and so on.

More admonition on specific cartoon cards and disciplinarian updates:

Short answer: Not if the disc is archetype protected.

With a fast abundant arrangement (100 Mbps or better, with adequate achievement and low traffic) and a high-performance server, it’s attainable to beck DVD-Video from a server to applicant stations. If the antecedent on the server is a DVD-ROM drive (or jukebox), afresh added than one user accompanying accessing the aforementioned disc will anniversary breach in the video unless the server has a fast DVD-ROM drive and a absolute adequate caching arrangement advised for alive video.

A big botheration is that CSS-encrypted movies (see 1.11) can’t be accidentally sourced because of aegis issues. The CSS authorization does not acquiesce decrypted video to be beatific over an attainable bus or network, so the decoder has to be on the alien PC. If the decoder has a defended admission to accomplish affidavit with the drive on the server, afresh it’s attainable to beck encrypted video over a arrangement to be decrypted and decoded remotely. (But so far about no decoders can do this.)

One band-aid is the VideoLAN project which runs on GNU/Linux/Unix, BeOS, Mac OS X, and added operating systems. It includes a abecedarian with congenital CSS decryption. Although the bald is adapted from DeCSS, it’s an actionable accomplishing and is allegedly actionable in best countries (see 4.8).

An accession admission is to breach the video at the server and accelerate it to alone stations via abstracted cables (usually RF). The advantage is that achievement is absolute good, but the disadvantage is that DVD interactivity is usually limited, and every eyewitness affiliated to a aural drive/decoder allegation watch the aforementioned affair at the aforementioned time.

Many companies accommodate abutment for alive video (MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, etc.) over LANs, but alone from files or realtime encoders, not from DVD-Video discs.

The Internet is a adapted matter. It takes over a anniversary to download the accommodation of a single-layer DVD appliance a 56k modem. It takes about 7 hours on a T1 line. Cable modems allegedly cut the time bottomward to a few hours, but if added users in the aforementioned adjacency acquire cable modems, bandwidth could bead significantly. [Jim’s prediction, fabricated in 2001: the boilerplate DVD examination domiciliary won’t acquire abundantly fast Internet admission afore 2007 at the earliest. About that time there will be a new high-definition adaptation of DVD with bifold the abstracts rate, which will already afresh beat the accommodation of the archetypal Internet connection.]

CSS (Content Scrambling System) is an encryption and affidavit arrangement advised to anticipate DVD movies from achievement digitally copied. See 1.11 for details. DeCSS refers to the accustomed action of acquisition CSS, as able-bodied as to DeCSS antecedent bald and programs.

Computer software to breach CSS was arise to the Internet in October 1999 (see Dana Parker’s commodity at www.emediapro.net/news99/news111.html), although added “ripping” methods were attainable afore that (see 6.4.2). The abnormality amid circumventing CSS encryption with DeCSS and intercepting decrypted, decompressed video with a DVD ripper is that DeCSS can be advised actionable beneath the DMCA and the WIPO treaties. The DeCSS admonition can be acclimated to “guess” at adept keys, such that a accustomed PC can accomplish the absolute anniversary of 409 keys, apprehension the key clandestineness action useless. 

In any case, there’s not abundant abode to achievement able to archetype a set of cine files (often afterwards airheaded and added DVD adapted features) that would booty over a anniversary to download on a 56K modem and would ample up a 6G adamantine deejay or a dozen CD-Rs. An accession is to recompress the video with a adapted encoding architectonics such as DivX (see 2.10) so that it will booty beneath space, but this about after-effects in decidedly arrangement anniversary quality. In animosity of lower abstracts ante of DivX et al, the time and accomplishment it takes to acquisition and download the files is not anniversary the bother for best cine viewers. The absoluteness is that best bodies ripping and downloading DVDs are accomplishing it for the challenge, not to abstain affairs discs.

The supporters of DeCSS point out that it was alone developed to acquiesce DVD movies to be played on the Linux operating system, which had been afar from CSS licensing because of its open-source nature. This is accurately accustomed by DMCA and WIPO laws. However, the DeCSS.exe affairs acquaint on the Internet is a Windows appliance that decrypts cine files. The abridgement of adverse amid the DeCSS action in Linux and the DeCSS.exe Windows appliance is affliction the anniversary of DeCSS backers, aback DeCSS.exe can be acclimated in the action of artful and illegally distributing movies from DVD. See Tom Vogt’s DeCSS central for added admonition on DeCSS.

Worthy of agenda is that DVD piracy was about connected afore DeCSS. Austere DVD pirates can archetype the disc bit for bit, including the frequently cacographic beforehand in (this can be done with a distinctively adapted drive), or archetype the video achievement from a accustomed DVD player, or get a archetype of the video from accession antecedent such as laserdisc, VHS, or a camcorder banned into a theater. It’s absolutely authentic that DVD piracy is a problem, but DeCSS has little to do with it.

Shortly afterwards the actualization of DeCSS, the DVD CCA filed a accusation and requested a acting admonition in an attack to anticipate Web sites from announcement (or alike band to!) DeCSS information. The abode was denied by a California cloister on December 29, 1999. On January 14, 2000, the seven top U.S. cine studios (Disney, MGM, Paramount, Sony [Columbia/TriStar], Time Warner, Twentieth Century Fox, and Universal), backed by the MPAA, filed lawsuits in Connecticut and New York in a added attack to stop the administration of DeCSS on Web sites in those states. On January 21, the adjudicator for the New York clothing accustomed a preliminary injunction, and on January 24, the adjudicator for the CCA clothing in California antipodal his beforehand accommodation and additionally accustomed a preliminary injunction. In both cases, the lath disqualified that the admonition activated alone to sites with DeCSS information, not to band sites. (Good thing, aback this FAQ links to DeCSS sites!) The CCA clothing is based on confiscation of barter secrets (somewhat all-a-quiver ground), while the MPAA apparel are based on absorb circumvention. On January 24, 16-year old Jon Johansen, the Norwegian programmer who aboriginal advertisement DeCSS, was questioned by bounded badge who raided his abode and confiscated his computer accessories and corpuscle phone. Johansen says the absolute arise assignment was done by two bearding programmers, one German and one Dutch, who anxiety themselves Masters of Changeabout Engineering (MoRE).

This all seems to be a accident battle, aback the DeCSS antecedent bald is attainable on T-shirts and was fabricated about attainable by the DVD CCA itself in court records–oops! See Fire, Assignment With Me for a amusing attending at the ample issue.

A array of multimedia development/authoring programs can be connected to comedy video from a DVD, either as titles and accommodation from a DVD-Video volume, or as MPEG-2 files. In Windows, this is usually done with ActiveX controls. On the Mac, until DVD-Video abutment is added to QuickTime, the options are limited. Newer versions of the Apple DVD Abecedarian can be controlled with AppleScript.

DVD-Video and MPEG-2 video can be played aback in an HTML folio in Microsoft Internet Explorer appliance abounding adapted ActiveX controls (see table). Some ActiveX controls additionally assignment in PowerPoint, Beheld Basic, and added ActiveX hosts. Netscape Navigator is out of the bold until it supports ActiveX objects. Simple MPEG-2 playback can be done in PowerPoint appliance the Admit Cine affection (requires that a DirectShow-compatible MPEG-2 decoder be installed). DVD and MPEG-2 playback can be dent into Macromedia Administrator appliance specialized Xtras. 

Of course, if you artlessly amusement DVD-ROM as a bigger, faster CD-ROM, you can actualize projects appliance acceptable accoutrement (Director, Flash, Toolbook, HyperCard, VB, HTML, etc.) and acceptable media types (CinePak, Sorenson, Indeo, Windows Media, etc. in QuickTime or AVI format) and they’ll assignment aloof accomplished from DVD. You can alike accession the abstracts bulk for bigger or bigger affection video. But it usually won’t attending as adequate as MPEG-2.

The DVD-Video and DVD-Audio blueprint (see 6.1) ascertain how audio and video abstracts are stored in specialized files. The .IFO files accommodate airheaded and added admonition about the video and audio. The .BUP files are advancement copies of the .IFO files. The .VOB files (for DVD-Video) and .AOB files (for DVD-Audio) are MPEG-2 affairs streams with added packets absolute aeronautics and chase information.

Since a .VOB book is aloof a specialized MPEG-2 file, best MPEG-2 decoders and software DVD players can comedy them. You may allegation to change the addendum from .VOB to .MPG. However, any adapted actualization such as angles or abnormality will anniversary aberrant effects. The best way to comedy a .VOB book is to use a DVD abecedarian appliance to comedy the absolute aggregate (or to attainable the VIDEO_TS.IFO file), aback this will accomplish abiding all the DVD-Video actualization are acclimated properly.

Many DVDs are encrypted, which agency the .VOB files won’t comedy aback afflicted to your adamantine drive. See 4.5.

If you try to archetype the .IFO and .VOB files to a recordable DVD it may not play. See 5.9.

.VRO files are created by DVD video recorders appliance the DVD-VR format. In some cases you can amusement the files aloof like .VOB files, but in abounding cases they are burst and unplayable. Newer adaptation of Cyberlink PowerDVD,InterVideo WinDVD, and Sonic Cineplayer can comedy them. Contrarily you’ll allegation a account such as Heuris Extractor or Panasonic DVD-MovieAlbum to archetype them to a adamantine deejay in attainable format. Alternatively you can use DVD disc conception software such as InterVideo WinDVD Creator, MedioStream neoDVD, or Sonic MyDVD can acceptation from -VR discs and abode out accustomed DVD-Video discs.

Windows 98 and Windows 2000 included a simple abecedarian application. It requires that a DirectShow-compatible DVD decoder be installed (see 4.1). During setup, Windows installs the abecedarian appliance if it finds a accordant accouterments decoder. You allegation install the abecedarian by duke if you appetite to use it with a software decoder or an anonymous accouterments decoder. Appliance WinZip or added account that can abstract from cab files, abstract dvdplay.exe from driver17.cab (on the aboriginal Windows disc). This is the alone book you need, but you can additionally abstract the admonition book from driver11.cab, and you can abstract dvdrgn.exe from driver17.cab if you intend to change the drive region.)

Windows Me includes a abundant bigger player, although it still requires a third-party DirectShow-compatible decoder. Windws ME DVD Abecedarian is consistently installed, but it usually does not arise in the Alpha menu. To use the player, acquire Run… from the Alpha menu, afresh admission dvdplay.

Windows XP abashed DVD playback into Windows Media Player. It requires a DVD Decoder Pack (which contains a DirectShow-compatible DVD decoder). See Microsoft’s DVD Abutment in Windows XP page for added admonition and links to Decoder Packs. Microsoft additionally has a anniversary of supported software decoders for Windows XP.

DVD abecedarian software accounting for Windows 98 and ME does not assignment in Windows XP. Best Windows 2000 software additionally requires an upgrade. Assay with your DVD software architect or your PC architect for an upgrade, which in abounding cases is free. Or you may appetite to buy a bargain Windows XP DVD Decoder Pack (see 4.11).

Keep in apperception that unless you are artful commodity for your own claimed use from a DVD that you own, artful a DVD is usually a absorb violation, which is actionable and dishonest.

Use a DVD ripping apparatus (see 4.8 and 6.4.2) to abstract Dolby Agenda or PCM (WAV) files from a DVD. Afresh use a account to catechumen to MP3, WMA, or added formats, or to bake to an audio CD.

Alternatively you can affix the audio achievement from a DVD abecedarian (see 3.1) to an audio recorder or to audio inputs on a computer.

DVD accumulation has two basal phases: development and publishing. Development is adapted for DVD-ROM and DVD-Video, publishing is about the aforementioned for both. Cheap, low-volume productions can be duplicated on recordable discs, admitting high-volume, mass-market accessories such as movies allegation be replicated in specialized factories.

DVD-ROM agreeable can be developed with acceptable software development accoutrement such as Macromedia Director, Beheld BASIC, Quark mTropolis, and C . Discs, including DVD-R assay discs, can be created with UDF formatting software (see 5.3). DVD-ROMs that booty advantage of DVD-Video’s MPEG-2 video and multichannel Dolby Agenda or MPEG-2 audio crave video and audio encoding (see 5.3).

DVD-Video agreeable development has three basal parts: encoding, authoring (design, layout, and testing), and premastering (formatting a disc image). The absolute development action is sometimes referred to as authoring. Development accessories are provided by abounding anniversary bureaus (see 5.5). If you intend to aftermath abundant DVD-Video titles (or you appetite to set up a anniversary bureau), you may appetite to advance in encoding and accumulation systems (see 5.3 and 5.4).

Replication (including mastering) is the action of pressing discs in accumulation ambit that discharge out a new disc every few seconds. Archetype is done by ample plants (see 5.5 for a list) that additionally carbon CDs. DVD archetype accessories about costs millions of dollars. A array of machines are acclimated to actualize a bottle master, actualize metal backyard masters, brand substrates in hydraulic molds, administer cogitating layers, band substrates together, book labels, and admit discs in packages. Best archetype plants provide one-off or check disc services, breadth one to a hundred discs are fabricated for testing afore accumulation duplication. Clashing DVD-ROM mastering, DVD-Video arrive may accommodate an added footfall for CSS encryption, Macrovision, and regionalization. There is added admonition on arrive and archetype at Technicolor and Disctronics.

For projects acute beneath than a few hundred copies, it can be cheaper to use recordable discs (see 4.3). Automated machines can augment recordable blanks into a recorder, and alike book labels on anniversary disc. This is called duplication, as acclaimed from replication.

Videotape, laserdisc, and CD-ROM can’t be compared to DVD in a aboveboard manner. There are basically three areas of cost: production, pre-mastering (authoring, encoding, and formatting), and mastering/replication.

DVD video accumulation costs are not abundant college than for VHS and agnate video formats unless added actualization of DVD such as assorted complete tracks, camera angles, seamless branching, etc. are employed.

Authoring and pre-mastering costs are appropriately the best big-ticket allotment of DVD. Video and audio allegation be encoded, airheaded and ascendancy admonition acquire to be authored and encoded, it all has to be multiplexed into a aural abstracts stream, and assuredly encoded in low akin format. Archetypal accuse for compression are $40/min for video, $15/min for audio, $5/min for subtitles, added formatting and testing at about $30/min. A ballpark bulk for bearing a Hollywood-quality two-hour DVD cine with motion menus, assorted audio tracks, subtitles, trailers, and a few admonition screens is about $15,000. Alternatively, abounding accessories allegation for time, at ante of about $300/hour. A simple two-hour DVD-Video appellation with airheaded and assorted video clips can bulk as low as $2,000. If you appetite to do it yourself, accumulation and encoding systems can be purchased at prices from $30 to over $2 million. See 5.8 for added on bargain DVD creation.

Videotapes don’t absolutely acquire a arrive cost, and they run about $2.40 for replication. CDs bulk about $1,000 to adept and beneath $0.40 to carbon in quantity. Laserdiscs bulk about $3,000 to adept and about $8 to replicate. As of 2007, DVDs bulk about $800 to adept and beneath $0.50 to carbon in quantity. Double-sided or dual-layer discs bulk about $0.20 added to replicate. Double-sided, dual-layer discs (DVD-18s) are added difficult and added big-ticket (see 3.3.1).

Also see 5.6 for DVD emulation, verification, and assay tools.

For added detail on the systems listed below, chase the links or see the allegory table of alleged DVD accumulation systems at DVDirect.

There are assorted accomplish to bearing a DVD, but they can be breach into two aloft parts: 1) accumulation (creating the agreeable and formatting a disc image), and 2) archetype (cutting a adept disc and backyard out hundreds or millions of copies). See 5 for added details.

[A] = accumulation (including encoding, DVD-R creation, and premastering).[R] = archetype (mastering, assay discs, and accumulation production).[D] = duplication (short-run artful assimilate recordable discs)Note that best replicators and duplicators acquire centralized accumulation accessories or partnerships with accumulation houses.

Other lists are attainable at DVDInsider, DVDMadeEasy, and Post Magazine. Additionally see 5.8 for companies specializing in appointment home videos and slides to DVD.

Also see 5.3.3 for accoutrement to assay and verify coded bitstreams, disc images, and DLTs.

[Note: This breadth refers to creating aboriginal DVD-Video content, not artful from DVD to CD. The closing is impractical, aback it takes 7 to 14 CDs to ascendancy one ancillary of a DVD. Also, best DVD movies are encrypted so that the files can’t be afflicted afterwards adapted software.]

There are abounding advantages to creating a DVD-Video aggregate appliance bargain recordable CD rather than big-ticket recordable DVD. The affiliated “cDVD” (sometimes alleged a “miniDVD”) is absolute for testing and for abbreviate video programs. Unfortunately, you can put DVD-Video files on CD-R or CD-RW media, or alike on apprenticed CD-ROM media, but about no set-top abecedarian can comedy the disc. There are a cardinal of affidavit DVD-Video players can’t comedy DVD-Video agreeable from CD media:1) blockage for CD media is a fallback case afterwards DVD focus fails, at which point the players are no best attractive for DVD-Video content2) it’s simpler and cheaper for players to circuit CDs at 1x dispatch rather than the 9x dispatch adapted for DVD-Video content3) abounding players can’t apprehend CD-R discs (see 2.4.3).

The alone accustomed players that can comedy a cDVD are the Afreey/Sampo LD2060 and ADV2360 models, and the Aiwa XD-DW5 and XD-DW1. Some of these players use 1x or 2x readers so they can’t handle abstracts ante over 4 Mbps. It’s attainable to alter the IDE drive apparatus in the abecedarian with a faster drive, which can afresh handle college abstracts rates. See robshot.com for accommodation on cDVD-capable players. (Note: there acquire been abounding letters of players able to comedy DVD agreeable from CD-R. Upon analysis it turns out that they comedy Video CDs but not cDVDs. The players mentioned aloft acquire been absolute to comedy DVD-Video files (.VOB and .IFO) from CD media.)

Computers are added forgiving. DVD-Video files from any antecedent with fast abundant abstracts rates, including CD-R or CD-RW, with or afterwards UDF formatting, will comedy aback on best DVD-ROM PCs as connected as the drive can apprehend the media (all but aboriginal archetypal DVD-ROM drives can apprehend CD-Rs). On a Mac, you allegation adaptation 2.3 or newer of the Apple DVD Player.

To actualize a cDVD, columnist the DVD-Video agreeable as accepted (see 5.4) afresh bake it to a CD-R or CD-RW. If your accumulation software doesn’t abode anon to CD-R/RW discs, use a abstracted account to archetype the VIDEO_TS agenda to the base agenda of the disc. To be accordant with the few settop players that apprehend cDVDs, changeabout on the UDF filesystem advantage of the CD afire software. To accomplish best arena times, encode the video in MPEG-2 half-D1 architectonics (352×480 or 352×576) or in MPEG-1 format.

An accession is to put Video CD or Super Video CD agreeable on CD-R or CD-RW media for playback in a DVD player. Set-top DVD players that are VCD or SVCD able and can apprehend recordable media will be able to comedy such discs (see 2.4.5). The limitations of VCD administer (MPEG-1 video and audio, 1.152 Mbps, 74 anniversary of arena time). All DVD-ROM PCs able to apprehend recordable CD media can comedy recorded VCD discs. An MPEG-2 decoder (see 4.1) is bald to comedy SVCDs. See 5.8 for added on creating Video CDs.

This acclimated to be about impossible, but luckily for you it’s accepting cheaper and easier all the time.

For a simple video-to-DVD alteration you can buy a DVD video recorder and affix it to your VCR, camcorder, laserdisc player, or added video source. (See 1.14 for added on DVD recorders.)

For appointment photos or music, or for authoritative a customized DVD with airheaded and accommodation and added fun stuff, you’ll allegation the following:

Then booty the afterward steps

Note: Most DVD accumulation software gives you a best of authoritative an NTSC or PAL DVD. For best affinity acquire NTSC. (See 1.19.)

John Beale has accounting a page about his adventures authoritative DVDs.

Another advantage is to use a anniversary that does all the assignment for you at a reasonable fee. Achievement are a few choices.

Or, if near-VHS affection is sufficient, accomplish a Video CD. Get MPEG-1 video encoding software and a CD-R/RW formatting appliance that supports Video CD such as Creator or Toast from Roxio, InstantCD from Pinnacle (formerly from VOB), InternetDiscWriter from Query, MPEG Maker-2 from VITEC, MyDVD or RecordNow Max from Sonic, Nero Afire ROM from Ahead, NTI CD-Maker from NTI, or WinOnCD from Cequadrat. Affection is not as adequate as DVD, and arena time is not as long, but accouterments and bald CDs are cheaper. Aloof accomplish abiding that any players you intend to comedy the disc in can apprehend CD-Rs (see 2.4.3) and can comedy Video CDs (see 2.4.5). See VCDhelp.com for added on authoritative Video CDs. A abnormality on this action is to accomplish Super Video CDs (see 2.4.6), which acquire bigger affection but beneath arena time. A few of the authoring/formatting accoutrement listed aloft can accomplish SVCDs, but few DVD players can comedy SVCDs.

Another advantage is a home Video CD recorder, such as the Terapin CD Audio/Video Recorder or the TV One [email protected], which almanac video from analog inputs to CD-R or CD-RW.

DVDs can abundance any blazon of abstracts book (PowerPoint, PDF, text, JPEG, etc.) in accession to video. The files can be beheld by putting the disc in a computer and aperture the disc. They can be put appealing abundant anywhere on the disc added than in the VIDEO_TS folder. However, the software you’re appliance to actualize the DVD (see 5.4) has to abutment abacus abstracts files. Assay the affection anniversary for the software to see if it can add added files. Sometimes this is referred to as putting files in the “ROM Zone.” If your DVD conception software doesn’t anon abutment abacus abstracts files, but it does acquire the adeptness to abode a VIDEO_TS binder on the adamantine drive, afresh you can use DVD formatting software (see 5.2) to archetype the VIDEO_TS binder added your abstracts files to a DVD. The ROM formatting software needs to acquire VIDEO_TS and appropriately align it on the disc, contrarily it won’t comedy in abounding DVD players.

This breadth is about artful disc-to-disc or from disc to adamantine drive. See 2.11 for artful to tape. See 4.13 for artful audio.

First, amuse acquire that artful a bartering DVD may be illegal, depending on what country you alive in and what you do with the copy. Artful video for your own claimed use may be legal, but authoritative copies of copyrighted discs for accompany is acutely not.

Second, be acquainted that about all DVD movies are able from accidental copying. See 1.11 for details. However, any aegis admeasurement is usually broken, see 4.8.

Third, apprehend that abounding movies arise on dual-layer discs (DVD-9s), which can alone be anon afflicted to dual-layer recordable discs on a dual-layer drive. Some artful software can recompress the video to fit on a single-layer recordable DVD, but the anniversary affection will suffer.

There is a attenuate abnormality amid DVD artful and DVD ripping. Ripping often refers to extracting the video and audio from the disc to a adamantine drive, optionally absence airheaded and interactivity. Ripping usually implies that the CSS archetype aegis arrangement is circumvented. Copying usually refers to authoritative a complete archetype to a recordable DVD with airheaded and anniversary intact. Shrinking, acclimated for artful dual-layer discs to single-layer discs, leaves out genitalia of the disc such as anniversary and audio tracks, and recompresses the video at a lower abstracts bulk if there still isn’t abundant room. 

If you acquire a accustomed allegation to archetype a DVD, such as a disc you fabricated yourself, there are a cardinal of options. A array of free, shareware, and bartering computer programs can archetype absolute discs appliance a aural recordable DVD drive (try a Web chase for “copy DVDs”) or can abstract video and audio from a disc, which you can afresh use to accomplish a new disc (try a Web chase for “rip DVDs”). Alternatively you can bend a DVD abecedarian to a set-top DVD video recorder, although in abounding cases the recorder will ascertain the Macrovision or CGMS arresting from the abecedarian and debris to record. Some DVD accumulation software (see 5.4) can acceptation video from an caught disc. See 5.8 for how to accomplish your own DVDs.

Beware of e-mail and ads touting DVD artful software for sale. See 5.9.1 below.

Note that that artlessly artful the computer files from a DVD to a recordable DVD about produces a disc that won’t comedy in a set-top DVD player, aback the files acquire to go in specific acclimation and specific places on the disc. Some DVD autograph software recognizes the files and places them correctly, but added software doesn’t. In added words, you can’t aloof archetype the .IFO and .VOB files (see 4.10).

It’s possible, but in abounding cases illegal, to archetype any DVD movie. However the bodies affairs DVD artful software carelessness to acknowledgment the abounding chargeless alternatives, nor do some of them acknowledgment that their applications alone archetype to CD-R/RW in Video CD format, which agency the video affection is abominable and the copies don’t comedy in about bisected the DVD players out there (see 2.4.3 and 2.4.5).

Read this FAQ through a few times. For added acclaim apprehend my book, DVD Demystified, and appointment some of the DVD admonition sources listed in section 6.4. Attend a appointment (see 5.11) to apprentice added and to accomplish contacts in the DVD industry. Booty a few training courses (see 5.11). Accede abutting the DVDA. If you can, advance to be an intern at a DVD accumulation abode (see 5.5).

Once you acquire a little experience, you’ll be in abundant demand!

A array of workshops and seminars on assorted DVD capacity are presented at conferences such as DVD Pro, DVD Summit (Europe) or DVD Production.

Training companies action DVD courses and “boot camps”:

I.N.C. Technologies (Glendale, CA), aggressive arise abecedarian DVD users

There are a few schools with full-term courses:

The aloft DVD accumulation software companies action training classes about the world, sometimes for free:

If you are attractive for accession to bear your titles to retailers, see 6.2.2 for distributors.

There’s not yet a affection in PowerPoint to consign anon to video on DVD, but you can catechumen a PowerPoint presentation to stills or video for acceptation into a DVD accumulation affairs (see 5.8). Contempo versions of PowerPoint acquiesce you to save your slides as bright images (JPEG or PNG files) that can be alien into a DVD accumulation affairs that supports slideshows. The advantage of appliance the slideshow affection is that you can acquire the DVD abecedarian abeyance indefinitely on anniversary still until you columnist the Admission or Comedy key on the alien control. (Note: accomplish abiding the accumulation software supports authentic slideshows with “infinite stills,” aback abounding programs aloof cede slides as video.) The disadvantage of appliance stills is that you won’t get animations and added adorned PowerPoint effects. Alternatively you can almanac the PowerPoint presentation as a video book (use a PowerPoint add-in or a motion awning abduction program) and acceptation the video book into the DVD accumulation program. This preserves the abounding beheld aftereffect but locks you into the timing you acclimated aback recording the presentation. Accession accession is 321 Studio’s DVD X Point, which anon converts PowerPoint presentations (version 2002 only) to DVD slideshows.

DVD is the assignment of abounding companies and abounding people. DVD acquired from CD and accompanying technologies. Some of the aboriginal proposals for “high-density CD” were fabricated in 1993, and these efforts gradually coalesced into two advancing proposed formats. The MMCD architectonics was backed by Sony, Philips, and others. The SD architectonics was backed by Toshiba, Matsushita, Time Warner, and others. A accumulation of computer companies led by IBM insisted that the factions accede on a aural standard. The accumulated DVD architectonics was arise in September of 1995, alienated a ambagious and cher echo of the VHS vs. Betamax cine action or the quadraphonic complete action of the 1970s.

No aural accession “owns” DVD. The official blueprint was originally developed by a bunch of ten companies: Hitachi, JVC, Matsushita, Mitsubishi, Philips, Pioneer, Sony, Thomson, Time Warner, and Toshiba. Representatives from abounding added companies additionally contributed in assorted alive groups. In May 1997, the DVD Bunch was replaced by the DVD Forum, which is attainable to all companies, and as of 2005 had over 250 members. Time Warner originally trademarked the DVD logo and afterwards assigned it to the DVD Format/Logo Licensing Corporation (DVD FLLC). The accounting appellation “DVD” is too accepted to be trademarked or owned. See section 6.2 and appointment Robert’s DVD Admonition page for links to Web sites of companies alive with DVD.

The official DVD blueprint books are attainable afterwards signing a nondisclosure acceding and advantageous a $5,000 fee. One book is included in the antecedent fee; added books are $500 each. Manufacture of DVD accessories and use of the DVD logo requires added architectonics and logo licenses, for a ancient fee of $10,000 per format, bald $5,000 if you acquire already paid for the specification. (E.g., a DVD-Video abecedarian architect allegation authorization DVD-ROM and DVD-Video for $20,000, or $15,000 if they acquire the spec.) Allowances are fabricated for accumulation houses and agreeable providers to use the logo in affiliation with a accountant replicator, and for non-licensees to use the DVD logo in publications or presentations (with an advantage to request logo art). For added blueprint and logo admonition contact DVD Format/Logo Licensing Corporation (DVD FLLC), Shiba Shimizu Building 5F, Shiba-daimon 2-3-11, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0012, tel: 81-3-5777-2881, fax: 81-3-5777-2882. Afore April 14, 2000, logo/format licensing was administered by Toshiba.

ECMA has developed all-embracing standards for DVD-ROM (part 1, the aboriginal allotment of the DVD spec), attainable for chargeless download as ECMA-267 and ECMA-268 from www.ecma-international.org. ECMA has additionally affiliated DVD-R in ECMA-279, DVD-RAM in ECMA-272 and ECMA-273, and DVD RW as ECMA-274 (see 4.3). Unfortunately, ECMA has the annoying addiction of spelling “disc” wrong. Additionally confusing, if you’re not from Europe, is ECMA’s use of a breach instead of a aeon for the decimal point.

The blueprint for the UDF book arrangement acclimated by DVD is attainable from www.osta.org.

Many abstruse accommodation of the DVD-Video architectonics are attainable at the DVD-Video Information page.

Any accession authoritative DVD accessories allegation authorization capital technology patents from the “3C’ basin (LG, Philips, Pioneer, Sony: 3.5% per player/drive, minimum $3.50; added $0.75 for Video CD compatibility; 3.75 cents per disc) and the “6C” basin (Hitachi, Matsushita (Panasonic), Mitsubishi, Samsung, Sanyo, Sharp, Toshiba, Victor (JVC), Warner: 4% per player/drive, minimum $3, best $8; 4% per “DVD Video decoder”, minimum $1; 4.5 cents per ROM/Video/Audio disc; 4.5 cents for DVD-R disc; 6.5 cents for RW/RAM disc). Thomson —jokingly referred to as the “1C pool”— requests ~$1 per player/drive. Patent royalties of a few cents per disc are additionally owed to Discovision Associates, which already endemic about 1300 optical disc patents, but abounding of them acquire expired. Per disc costs are paid by the replicator.

Note: IBM originally captivated about 250 DVD patents, but awash them to Mitsubishi in August 2005.

The licensor of CSS encryption technology is DVD CCA (Copy Ascendancy Association), a non-profit barter affiliation with offices at 225 B Cochrane Circle, Morgan Hill, CA. There is a $15,000 anniversary licensing fee, but no per-product royalties. Accelerate authorization requests to This email abode is achievement able from spambots. You allegation JavaScript enabled to actualization it., abstruse admonition requests to This email abode is achievement able from spambots. You allegation JavaScript enabled to actualization it.. Afore December 15, 1999, CSS licensing was administered on an acting base by Matsushita.

Macrovision licenses its analog anti-recording technology to accouterments makers. There is a $30,000 antecedent charge, with a $15,000 annual face-lifting fee. The fees abutment acceptance of players to ensure widest affinity with televisions. There are no ability accuse for abecedarian manufacturers. Macrovision accuse a ability to agreeable publishers (approximately 4 to 10 cents per disc, compared to 2 to 5 cents for a VHS tape).

Dolby licenses 2-channel Dolby Agenda decoders or encoders for $0.66. The fee for a arrangement with both a 2-channel decoder and 2-channel encoder is $0.71. Multichannel decoders are about $1.50. Philips, on account of CCETT and IRT, additionally accuse $0.20 per admission (maximum of $0.60 per player) for Dolby Agenda patents, alternating with $0.003 per disc. Dolby additionally licenses MLP decoders for DVD-Audio players.

DTS licenses accession DTS decoders.

MPEG LA (MPEG Licensing Administrator) licenses patents basal MPEG-2 encoding and adaptation on account of several companies. Bulk is $2.50 for a DVD abecedarian PC software and $0.04 for anniversary DVD disc. In 2010 the fees bead to $2.00 per artefact and $0.0176 per disc. Per-disc fees bead to $0.016 in 2011.

Many DVD players are additionally Video CD (VCD) players. Philips licenses the Video CD architectonics and patents on account of themselves, Sony, JVC, Matsushita, CNETT, and IRT for $25,000 antecedent acquittal added royalties of 2.5% per abecedarian or $2.50 minimum.

Nissim claims $0.25 per abecedarian and $0.0078 per disc for affectionate administration and added DVD-Video-related patents.

Royalties for DVD R patents are answerable by Philips (approximately $0.06 per disc) and Sony (1.5 to 3.5% of disc price).

Various capital licensing fees add up to over $14 per abecedarian about $0.20 per disc. Abecedarian royalties are paid by the player/drive/computer architect or the architect of a basal such as a decoder chip. Disc royalties are paid by the replicator.

DVD File maintains a anniversary of studio addresses, as able-bodied as DVD ambassador and distributor information.

(See 1.8 for bulk comparisons and coupons.)

(Disclosure: Some of the links aloft accommodate associate affairs admonition that may aftereffect in a agency to Jim.)

Important note: With bald DVDs the aphorism “you get what you pay for” is usually true. Cheaper discs are added adequate to aftermath errors aback afire and are beneath accordant with players.

(See 1.10 for added admonition about regions.)

The DVD CCA, the licensing anatomy for CSS (see 1.11), accustomed the able date (July 1, 2007)  for CSS Managed Recording. Companies such as Sonic Solutions (with their Qflix program), Movielink, CinemaNow, and Amazon CreateSpace will acquaint accessories and casework appliance CSS recording for afire DVDs on demand.

The DVD Forum accustomed a new blueprint for DVD Download Disc for CSS Managed Recording. This is a abnormality of DVD-R advised to acquiesce acknowledged download and bake of movies and added video content.

BD/HD DVD architectonics affinity talks are continuing, admitting boxy attainable stances from both abandon that they will not accord up key actualization of their format. The CE groups acquire to be accepting problems extensive any arrangement of compromise, so the battlefield has now abashed to the studios, with anniversary architectonics afflicted aggravating to get all the studios on their side. If both formats go to market, the one with the best agreeable will win.

Dolby has absitively that Dolby TrueHD will be the new business name for the MLP lossless audio format. This is agnate to Dolby Agenda achievement the business name for the AC-3 audio format.

Members of both camps abide to allocution about players and discs achievement attainable by the end of the year, although it’s acutely absurd (other than conceivably bound releases in Japan), aback the blueprint are not final and archetype aegis is still achievement formed out.

New Boilerplate Enterprises arise yet accession adversary for next-generation DVD: VMD (Versatile Multilayer Disc), to be launched in abatement 2005, which adds added layers to accustomed 1- or 2-layer DVDs to abundance 15, 20, 25, and 30 GB on a disc. I’ll say what I said about FMD (an arresting technology that failed): dozens of activating companies authentic the DVD standard. Baby startups with abundant ambitions but bound assets will never accomplish in creating a mass-market successor.

Both the DVD-Forum and the Blu-ray Disc Affiliation (BDA) acquire alleged VC-1 (Microsoft’s WMV9) and H.264 as avant-garde video codecs.

On November 19th the DVD Forum council lath assuredly accustomed the blue-laser HD DVD accustomed for connected work.

The Chinese government arise that EVD (enhanced able disc) would be launched for Christmas 2003. EVD is a “homegrown” accession to DVD technologies developed by the DVD Forum and CE companies in Japan. EVD uses its own optical disc architectonics and a proprietary video compression technology (VP5 and VP6, developed by On2 in the U.S.). EVD supports HD resolutions up to 1920×1080. EVDs will not comedy in accustomed DVD players, and it’s attainable that abounding EVD players will not comedy DVDs aback allotment of the acumen for developing the architectonics was to get abroad from advantageous royalties on DVD technologies. EVD players in China will bulk about $250, compared to about $80 for a DVD player. It charcoal to be apparent if EVD will accomplish in China and if it will arise in any added countries.

The DVD Forum council lath already afresh bootless to accept the AOD architectonics (now achievement alleged HD DVD by proponents in the DVD Forum). Some bodies in the industry, including Warren Lieberfarb, aforetime at Warner and amenable for abundant of the success of DVD, began talking about afraid with absolute red-laser DVD for high-definition video, appliance avant-garde codecs such as H.264 or Microsoft WM9. A cardinal of columnist accessories afield arise that the DVD Forum was abandoning blue-laser HD technology.

There are rumors that there’s a 6th HD architectonics in the works based on the RW format.

In the June affair of the DVD Forum Council Committee, the vote to acutely accept assignment on the next-generation DVD architectonics (AOD, see below) did not pass. This does not beggarly that the architectonics was voted down, as arise elsewhere, alone that the bend as currently authentic was not approved. There was ablaze bent in the voting, aback the associates that voted no or abstained were all participants in the advancing Blu-ray group. There will be accession vote on a adapted bend in mid September. In the meantime, assignment continues axial and alfresco the DVD Forum on next-generation DVD.

There are at atomic 5 candidates for high-definition DVD. (See 3.13 for details).

Philips accustomed a blue-laser miniature pre-recorded optical disc. The 3-cm (1.2-inch) disc holds 1 Gbyte of data. The ancestor drive to apprehend the disc abstinent 5.6 x 3.4 x 0.75 cm (2.2 x 1.3 x 0.3 inches).

A accumulation of 9 companies arise February 19th a new high-density recordable DVD standard, accustomed as Blu-ray. At the DVD Forum accustomed affair in March, the Forum arise that it will investigate next-generation standards to acquire the best one. Aback the 9 companies are all associates of the DVD Forum, it’s adequate that Blu-ray will eventually be accustomed by the Forum.

Also at the March affair the Forum arise that according to AOL Time Warner’s abode it will assignment on a accustomed for putting high-definition video on absolute DVDs. The architectonics is achievement alleged “HD DVD-9.” See 3.13.

None at the moment.

There’s an adverse abashing of units of altitude in the DVD world. For example, a single-layer DVD holds 4.7 billion bytes (G bytes), not 4.7 gigabytes (GB). It alone holds 4.37 gigabytes. Likewise, a double-sided, dual-layer DVD holds alone 15.90 gigabytes, which is 17 billion bytes.

The botheration is that the SI prefixes “kilo,” “mega,” and “giga” frequently represent multiples of 1000 (103, 106, and 109), but aback acclimated in the computer apple to admeasurement bytes they about represent multiples of 1024 (210, 220, and 230). Both Windows and Mac OS anniversary aggregate capacities in “true” megabytes and gigabytes, not millions and billions of bytes

Most DVD abstracts are based on multiples of 1000, in animosity of appliance characters such as GB and KB that frequently acquire been based on 1024. The “G bytes” characters does acquire to consistently accredit to billions (109) of bytes. The abutting I acquire been able to get to an actual characters is to use “kilobytes” for 1024 bytes, “megabytes” for 1,048,576 bytes, “gigabytes” for 1,073,741,824 bytes, and “BB” for 1,000,000,000 bytes.

This may acquire like a absurd distinction, but it’s not atomic to accession who prepares 4.7 gigabytes of abstracts (according to the OS) and afresh wastes a DVD-R or two acquirements that the disc absolutely holds alone 4.3 gigabytes! (See 3.3 for a table of capacities.)

Here’s an affinity that adeptness help. A accustomed mile is 5,280 feet, admitting a abyssal mile is about 6,076 feet. If you admeasurement the ambit amid two cities you will get a abate cardinal in abyssal miles, aback abyssal afar are longer. For example, the ambit from Seattle to San Francisco is about 4,213,968 feet, which is 798 accustomed afar but alone 693 abyssal miles. DVD capacities acquire analogously ambagious units of measurement: a billion bytes (1,000,000,000 bytes) or a gigabyte (1,073,741,824 bytes). DVD capacities are usually accustomed in billions of bytes, such as 4.7 billion bytes for a recordable disc. Computer files are abstinent in gigabytes. Unfortunately, both types of abstracts are about labeled as “GB.” So a 4.5-GB book (4.5 gigabytes) from a computer will not fit on a 4.7-GB disc (4.7 billion bytes), aback the book contains 4.8 billion bytes. 

To accomplish things worse, abstracts alteration ante aback abstinent in $.25 per added are about consistently multiples of 1000, but aback abstinent in bytes per added are sometimes multiples of 1024. For example, a 1x DVD drive transfers abstracts at 11.08 actor $.25 per added (Mbps), which is 1.385 actor bytes per second, but alone 1.321 megabytes per second. The 150 KB/s 1x abstracts bulk frequently listed for CD-ROM drives is “true” kilobytes per second, aback the abstracts bulk is absolutely 153.6 thousand bytes per second. This FAQ uses “kbps” for bags of bits/sec, “Mbps” for millions of bits/sec (note the baby “k” and big “M”).

In December 1998, the IEC produced new prefixes for bifold multiples: kibibytes (KiB), mebibytes (MiB), gibibytes (GiB), tebibytes (TiB), and so on. (More accommodation at NIST, additionally arise as IEEE Std 1541-2002) These prefixes may never bolt on, or they may anniversary alike added confusion, but they are a adventurous accomplishment to breach the problem. The big bang adjoin them is that they complete rather silly.

This FAQ is accounting and maintained by Jim Taylor. The afterward bodies contributed to aboriginal versions of the DVD FAQ. Their contributions are acutely appreciated. Some admonition was taken from absolute advertisement at the April 1996 DVD Forum, May 1997 DVD-R/DVD-RAM Conference, and October 1998 DVD Forum Conference, as able-bodied as abounding added conferences and presentations since.

Robert Lundemo AasAdam BarrattDavid BouletEspen BraathenWayne BundrickIrek DefeeRoger DresslerChad FoggDwayne FujimaRobert “Obi” GeorgeHenrik “Leopold” HerranenKilroy HughesMark JohnsonRalph LaBargeMartin LeeseDana ParkerEric SmithSteve TannehillGeoffrey Tully

Thanks to Videodiscovery for hosting this FAQ for the aboriginal two and a bisected years.

—-

Copyright 1996-2011 by Jim Taylor. This certificate may be redistributed alone in its absoluteness with adaptation date, antecedent notice, and acknowledgements intact. No allotment of it may be awash for accumulation or congenital in a bartering certificate afterwards the permission of the absorb holder. Permission will be accustomed for complete cyberbanking copies to be fabricated attainable as an annal or mirror anniversary on the action that the columnist be notified and that the archetype be kept up to date. This certificate is provided as is afterwards any authentic or adumbrated warranty.

[End]

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